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Frame

At every point of time, page exposes its current frame tree via the page.main_frame and frame.child_frames methods.

Frame object's lifecycle is controlled by three events, dispatched on the page object:

An example of dumping frame tree:

from playwright.sync_api import sync_playwright

def run(playwright):
firefox = playwright.firefox
browser = firefox.launch()
page = browser.new_page()
page.goto("https://www.theverge.com")
dump_frame_tree(page.main_frame, "")
browser.close()

def dump_frame_tree(frame, indent):
print(indent + frame.name + '@' + frame.url)
for child in frame.child_frames:
dump_frame_tree(child, indent + " ")

with sync_playwright() as playwright:
run(playwright)

frame.add_script_tag(**kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • content <str> Raw JavaScript content to be injected into frame.#
  • path <Union[str, pathlib.Path]> Path to the JavaScript file to be injected into frame. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to the current working directory.#
  • type <str> Script type. Use 'module' in order to load a Javascript ES6 module. See script for more details.#
  • url <str> URL of a script to be added.#
  • returns: <ElementHandle>#

Returns the added tag when the script's onload fires or when the script content was injected into frame.

Adds a <script> tag into the page with the desired url or content.

frame.add_style_tag(**kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • content <str> Raw CSS content to be injected into frame.#
  • path <Union[str, pathlib.Path]> Path to the CSS file to be injected into frame. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to the current working directory.#
  • url <str> URL of the <link> tag.#
  • returns: <ElementHandle>#

Returns the added tag when the stylesheet's onload fires or when the CSS content was injected into frame.

Adds a <link rel="stylesheet"> tag into the page with the desired url or a <style type="text/css"> tag with the content.

frame.check(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • force <bool> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
  • no_wait_after <bool> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
  • position <Dict> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element. Added in: v1.11#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • trial <bool> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it. Added in: v1.11#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

This method checks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Ensure that matched element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method throws. If the element is already checked, this method returns immediately.
  3. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  4. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  5. Use page.mouse to click in the center of the element.
  6. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless no_wait_after option is set.
  7. Ensure that the element is now checked. If not, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

frame.child_frames

Added in: v1.8

frame.click(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.#
  • click_count <int> defaults to 1. See UIEvent.detail.#
  • delay <float> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.#
  • force <bool> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
  • modifiers <List["Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift"]> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.#
  • no_wait_after <bool> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
  • position <Dict> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • trial <bool> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it. Added in: v1.11#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

This method clicks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use page.mouse to click in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless no_wait_after option is set.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

frame.content()

Added in: v1.8

Gets the full HTML contents of the frame, including the doctype.

frame.dblclick(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.#
  • delay <float> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.#
  • force <bool> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
  • modifiers <List["Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift"]> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.#
  • no_wait_after <bool> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
  • position <Dict> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • trial <bool> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it. Added in: v1.11#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

This method double clicks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use page.mouse to double click in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless no_wait_after option is set. Note that if the first click of the dblclick() triggers a navigation event, this method will throw.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

note

frame.dblclick() dispatches two click events and a single dblclick event.

frame.dispatch_event(selector, type, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • type <str> DOM event type: "click", "dragstart", etc.#
  • event_init <EvaluationArgument> Optional event-specific initialization properties.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

The snippet below dispatches the click event on the element. Regardless of the visibility state of the element, click is dispatched. This is equivalent to calling element.click().

frame.dispatch_event("button#submit", "click")

Under the hood, it creates an instance of an event based on the given type, initializes it with event_init properties and dispatches it on the element. Events are composed, cancelable and bubble by default.

Since event_init is event-specific, please refer to the events documentation for the lists of initial properties:

You can also specify JSHandle as the property value if you want live objects to be passed into the event:

# note you can only create data_transfer in chromium and firefox
data_transfer = frame.evaluate_handle("new DataTransfer()")
frame.dispatch_event("#source", "dragstart", { "dataTransfer": data_transfer })

frame.drag_and_drop(source, target, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.13
  • source <str> A selector to search for an element to drag. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • target <str> A selector to search for an element to drop onto. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • force <bool> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
  • no_wait_after <bool> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
  • source_position <Dict> Clicks on the source element at this point relative to the top-left corner of the element's padding box. If not specified, some visible point of the element is used. Added in: v1.14#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • target_position <Dict> Drops on the target element at this point relative to the top-left corner of the element's padding box. If not specified, some visible point of the element is used. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • trial <bool> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

frame.eval_on_selector(selector, expression, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.9
  • selector <str> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • expression <str> JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If it looks like a function declaration, it is interpreted as a function. Otherwise, evaluated as an expression.#
  • arg <EvaluationArgument> Optional argument to pass to expression.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • returns: <Serializable>#

Returns the return value of expression.

caution

This method does not wait for the element to pass actionability checks and therefore can lead to the flaky tests. Use locator.evaluate(expression, **kwargs), other Locator helper methods or web-first assertions instead.

The method finds an element matching the specified selector within the frame and passes it as a first argument to expression. See Working with selectors for more details. If no elements match the selector, the method throws an error.

If expression returns a Promise, then frame.eval_on_selector(selector, expression, **kwargs) would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

search_value = frame.eval_on_selector("#search", "el => el.value")
preload_href = frame.eval_on_selector("link[rel=preload]", "el => el.href")
html = frame.eval_on_selector(".main-container", "(e, suffix) => e.outerHTML + suffix", "hello")

frame.eval_on_selector_all(selector, expression, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.9
  • selector <str> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • expression <str> JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If it looks like a function declaration, it is interpreted as a function. Otherwise, evaluated as an expression.#
  • arg <EvaluationArgument> Optional argument to pass to expression.#
  • returns: <Serializable>#

Returns the return value of expression.

note

In most cases, locator.evaluate_all(expression, **kwargs), other Locator helper methods and web-first assertions do a better job.

The method finds all elements matching the specified selector within the frame and passes an array of matched elements as a first argument to expression. See Working with selectors for more details.

If expression returns a Promise, then frame.eval_on_selector_all(selector, expression, **kwargs) would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

divs_counts = frame.eval_on_selector_all("div", "(divs, min) => divs.length >= min", 10)

frame.evaluate(expression, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • expression <str> JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If it looks like a function declaration, it is interpreted as a function. Otherwise, evaluated as an expression.#
  • arg <EvaluationArgument> Optional argument to pass to expression.#
  • returns: <Serializable>#

Returns the return value of expression.

If the function passed to the frame.evaluate(expression, **kwargs) returns a Promise, then frame.evaluate(expression, **kwargs) would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

If the function passed to the frame.evaluate(expression, **kwargs) returns a non-Serializable value, then frame.evaluate(expression, **kwargs) returns undefined. Playwright also supports transferring some additional values that are not serializable by JSON: -0, NaN, Infinity, -Infinity.

result = frame.evaluate("([x, y]) => Promise.resolve(x * y)", [7, 8])
print(result) # prints "56"

A string can also be passed in instead of a function.

print(frame.evaluate("1 + 2")) # prints "3"
x = 10
print(frame.evaluate(f"1 + {x}")) # prints "11"

ElementHandle instances can be passed as an argument to the frame.evaluate(expression, **kwargs):

body_handle = frame.evaluate("document.body")
html = frame.evaluate("([body, suffix]) => body.innerHTML + suffix", [body_handle, "hello"])
body_handle.dispose()

frame.evaluate_handle(expression, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • expression <str> JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If it looks like a function declaration, it is interpreted as a function. Otherwise, evaluated as an expression.#
  • arg <EvaluationArgument> Optional argument to pass to expression.#
  • returns: <JSHandle>#

Returns the return value of expression as a JSHandle.

The only difference between frame.evaluate(expression, **kwargs) and frame.evaluate_handle(expression, **kwargs) is that frame.evaluate_handle(expression, **kwargs) returns JSHandle.

If the function, passed to the frame.evaluate_handle(expression, **kwargs), returns a Promise, then frame.evaluate_handle(expression, **kwargs) would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

a_window_handle = frame.evaluate_handle("Promise.resolve(window)")
a_window_handle # handle for the window object.

A string can also be passed in instead of a function.

a_handle = page.evaluate_handle("document") # handle for the "document"

JSHandle instances can be passed as an argument to the frame.evaluate_handle(expression, **kwargs):

a_handle = page.evaluate_handle("document.body")
result_handle = page.evaluate_handle("body => body.innerHTML", a_handle)
print(result_handle.json_value())
result_handle.dispose()

frame.expect_navigation(**kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • timeout <float> Maximum operation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_navigation_timeout(timeout), browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout), page.set_default_navigation_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • url <str|Pattern|Callable[URL]:bool> A glob pattern, regex pattern or predicate receiving URL to match while waiting for the navigation. Note that if the parameter is a string without wildcard characters, the method will wait for navigation to URL that is exactly equal to the string.#
  • wait_until <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle"|"commit"> When to consider operation succeeded, defaults to load. Events can be either:#
    • 'domcontentloaded' - consider operation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
    • 'load' - consider operation to be finished when the load event is fired.
    • 'networkidle' - consider operation to be finished when there are no network connections for at least 500 ms.
    • 'commit' - consider operation to be finished when network response is received and the document started loading.
  • returns: <EventContextManager[Response]>#

Waits for the frame navigation and returns the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect. In case of navigation to a different anchor or navigation due to History API usage, the navigation will resolve with null.

This method waits for the frame to navigate to a new URL. It is useful for when you run code which will indirectly cause the frame to navigate. Consider this example:

with frame.expect_navigation():
frame.click("a.delayed-navigation") # clicking the link will indirectly cause a navigation
# Resolves after navigation has finished
note

Usage of the History API to change the URL is considered a navigation.

frame.fill(selector, value, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • value <str> Value to fill for the <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element.#
  • force <bool> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false. Added in: v1.13#
  • no_wait_after <bool> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

This method waits for an element matching selector, waits for actionability checks, focuses the element, fills it and triggers an input event after filling. Note that you can pass an empty string to clear the input field.

If the target element is not an <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element, this method throws an error. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, the control will be filled instead.

To send fine-grained keyboard events, use frame.type(selector, text, **kwargs).

frame.focus(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8

This method fetches an element with selector and focuses it. If there's no element matching selector, the method waits until a matching element appears in the DOM.

frame.frame_element()

Added in: v1.8

Returns the frame or iframe element handle which corresponds to this frame.

This is an inverse of element_handle.content_frame(). Note that returned handle actually belongs to the parent frame.

This method throws an error if the frame has been detached before frameElement() returns.

frame_element = frame.frame_element()
content_frame = frame_element.content_frame()
assert frame == content_frame

frame.frame_locator(selector)

Added in: v1.17

When working with iframes, you can create a frame locator that will enter the iframe and allow selecting elements in that iframe. Following snippet locates element with text "Submit" in the iframe with id my-frame, like <iframe id="my-frame">:

locator = frame.frame_locator("#my-iframe").locator("text=Submit")
locator.click()

frame.get_attribute(selector, name, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • name <str> Attribute name to get the value for.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <NoneType|str>#

Returns element attribute value.

frame.goto(url, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8

Returns the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect.

The method will throw an error if:

  • there's an SSL error (e.g. in case of self-signed certificates).
  • target URL is invalid.
  • the timeout is exceeded during navigation.
  • the remote server does not respond or is unreachable.
  • the main resource failed to load.

The method will not throw an error when any valid HTTP status code is returned by the remote server, including 404 "Not Found" and 500 "Internal Server Error". The status code for such responses can be retrieved by calling response.status.

note

The method either throws an error or returns a main resource response. The only exceptions are navigation to about:blank or navigation to the same URL with a different hash, which would succeed and return null.

note

Headless mode doesn't support navigation to a PDF document. See the upstream issue.

frame.hover(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • force <bool> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
  • modifiers <List["Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift"]> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.#
  • position <Dict> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • trial <bool> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it. Added in: v1.11#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

This method hovers over an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use page.mouse to hover over the center of the element, or the specified position.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

frame.inner_html(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <str>#

Returns element.innerHTML.

frame.inner_text(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <str>#

Returns element.innerText.

frame.input_value(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.13
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <str>#

Returns input.value for the selected <input> or <textarea> or <select> element.

Throws for non-input elements. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, returns the value of the control.

frame.is_checked(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <bool>#

Returns whether the element is checked. Throws if the element is not a checkbox or radio input.

frame.is_detached()

Added in: v1.8

Returns true if the frame has been detached, or false otherwise.

frame.is_disabled(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <bool>#

Returns whether the element is disabled, the opposite of enabled.

frame.is_editable(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <bool>#

Returns whether the element is editable.

frame.is_enabled(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <bool>#

Returns whether the element is enabled.

frame.is_hidden(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> DEPRECATED This option is ignored. frame.is_hidden(selector, **kwargs) does not wait for the element to become hidden and returns immediately.#
  • returns: <bool>#

Returns whether the element is hidden, the opposite of visible. selector that does not match any elements is considered hidden.

frame.is_visible(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> DEPRECATED This option is ignored. frame.is_visible(selector, **kwargs) does not wait for the element to become visible and returns immediately.#
  • returns: <bool>#

Returns whether the element is visible. selector that does not match any elements is considered not visible.

frame.locator(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.14
  • selector <str> A selector to use when resolving DOM element. See working with selectors for more details.#

  • has <Locator> Matches elements containing an element that matches an inner locator. Inner locator is queried against the outer one. For example, article that has text=Playwright matches <article><div>Playwright</div></article>.#

    Note that outer and inner locators must belong to the same frame. Inner locator must not contain FrameLocators.

  • has_text <str|Pattern> Matches elements containing specified text somewhere inside, possibly in a child or a descendant element. When passed a [string], matching is case-insensitive and searches for a substring. For example, "Playwright" matches <article><div>Playwright</div></article>.#

  • returns: <Locator>#

The method returns an element locator that can be used to perform actions in the frame. Locator is resolved to the element immediately before performing an action, so a series of actions on the same locator can in fact be performed on different DOM elements. That would happen if the DOM structure between those actions has changed.

Learn more about locators.

frame.name

Added in: v1.8

Returns frame's name attribute as specified in the tag.

If the name is empty, returns the id attribute instead.

note

This value is calculated once when the frame is created, and will not update if the attribute is changed later.

frame.page

Added in: v1.8

Returns the page containing this frame.

frame.parent_frame

Added in: v1.8

Parent frame, if any. Detached frames and main frames return null.

frame.press(selector, key, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • key <str> Name of the key to press or a character to generate, such as ArrowLeft or a.#
  • delay <float> Time to wait between keydown and keyup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.#
  • no_wait_after <bool> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

key can specify the intended keyboardEvent.key value or a single character to generate the text for. A superset of the key values can be found here. Examples of the keys are:

F1 - F12, Digit0- Digit9, KeyA- KeyZ, Backquote, Minus, Equal, Backslash, Backspace, Tab, Delete, Escape, ArrowDown, End, Enter, Home, Insert, PageDown, PageUp, ArrowRight, ArrowUp, etc.

Following modification shortcuts are also supported: Shift, Control, Alt, Meta, ShiftLeft.

Holding down Shift will type the text that corresponds to the key in the upper case.

If key is a single character, it is case-sensitive, so the values a and A will generate different respective texts.

Shortcuts such as key: "Control+o" or key: "Control+Shift+T" are supported as well. When specified with the modifier, modifier is pressed and being held while the subsequent key is being pressed.

frame.query_selector(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.9
  • selector <str> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • returns: <NoneType|ElementHandle>#

Returns the ElementHandle pointing to the frame element.

caution

The use of ElementHandle is discouraged, use Locator objects and web-first assertions instead.

The method finds an element matching the specified selector within the frame. See Working with selectors for more details. If no elements match the selector, returns null.

frame.query_selector_all(selector)

Added in: v1.9

Returns the ElementHandles pointing to the frame elements.

caution

The use of ElementHandle is discouraged, use Locator objects instead.

The method finds all elements matching the specified selector within the frame. See Working with selectors for more details. If no elements match the selector, returns empty array.

frame.select_option(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • force <bool> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false. Added in: v1.13#
  • no_wait_after <bool> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • element <ElementHandle|List[ElementHandle]> Option elements to select. Optional.#
  • index <int|List[int]> Options to select by index. Optional.#
  • value <str|List[str]> Options to select by value. If the <select> has the multiple attribute, all given options are selected, otherwise only the first option matching one of the passed options is selected. Optional.#
  • label <str|List[str]> Options to select by label. If the <select> has the multiple attribute, all given options are selected, otherwise only the first option matching one of the passed options is selected. Optional.#
  • returns: <List[str]>#

This method waits for an element matching selector, waits for actionability checks, waits until all specified options are present in the <select> element and selects these options.

If the target element is not a <select> element, this method throws an error. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, the control will be used instead.

Returns the array of option values that have been successfully selected.

Triggers a change and input event once all the provided options have been selected.

# single selection matching the value
frame.select_option("select#colors", "blue")
# single selection matching both the label
frame.select_option("select#colors", label="blue")
# multiple selection
frame.select_option("select#colors", value=["red", "green", "blue"])

frame.set_checked(selector, checked, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.15
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • checked <bool> Whether to check or uncheck the checkbox.#
  • force <bool> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
  • no_wait_after <bool> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
  • position <Dict> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception.#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • trial <bool> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

This method checks or unchecks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Ensure that matched element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method throws.
  3. If the element already has the right checked state, this method returns immediately.
  4. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  5. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  6. Use page.mouse to click in the center of the element.
  7. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless no_wait_after option is set.
  8. Ensure that the element is now checked or unchecked. If not, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

frame.set_content(html, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8

frame.set_input_files(selector, files, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • files <Union[str, pathlib.Path]|List[Union[str, pathlib.Path]]|Dict|List[Dict]>#
    • name <str> File name
    • mimeType <str> File type
    • buffer <bytes> File content
  • no_wait_after <bool> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

Sets the value of the file input to these file paths or files. If some of the filePaths are relative paths, then they are resolved relative to the current working directory. For empty array, clears the selected files.

This method expects selector to point to an input element. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, targets the control instead.

frame.tap(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • force <bool> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
  • modifiers <List["Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift"]> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.#
  • no_wait_after <bool> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
  • position <Dict> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • trial <bool> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it. Added in: v1.11#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

This method taps an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use page.touchscreen to tap the center of the element, or the specified position.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless no_wait_after option is set.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

note

frame.tap() requires that the hasTouch option of the browser context be set to true.

frame.text_content(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8

Returns element.textContent.

frame.title()

Added in: v1.8

Returns the page title.

frame.type(selector, text, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • text <str> A text to type into a focused element.#
  • delay <float> Time to wait between key presses in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.#
  • no_wait_after <bool> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

Sends a keydown, keypress/input, and keyup event for each character in the text. frame.type can be used to send fine-grained keyboard events. To fill values in form fields, use frame.fill(selector, value, **kwargs).

To press a special key, like Control or ArrowDown, use keyboard.press(key, **kwargs).

frame.type("#mytextarea", "hello") # types instantly
frame.type("#mytextarea", "world", delay=100) # types slower, like a user

frame.uncheck(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • force <bool> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
  • no_wait_after <bool> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
  • position <Dict> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element. Added in: v1.11#
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • trial <bool> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it. Added in: v1.11#
  • returns: <NoneType>#

This method checks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Ensure that matched element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method throws. If the element is already unchecked, this method returns immediately.
  3. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  4. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  5. Use page.mouse to click in the center of the element.
  6. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless no_wait_after option is set.
  7. Ensure that the element is now unchecked. If not, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

frame.url

Added in: v1.8

Returns frame's url.

frame.wait_for_function(expression, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • expression <str> JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If it looks like a function declaration, it is interpreted as a function. Otherwise, evaluated as an expression.#
  • arg <EvaluationArgument> Optional argument to pass to expression.#
  • polling <float|"raf"> If polling is 'raf', then expression is constantly executed in requestAnimationFrame callback. If polling is a number, then it is treated as an interval in milliseconds at which the function would be executed. Defaults to raf.#
  • timeout <float> maximum time to wait for in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout).#
  • returns: <JSHandle>#

Returns when the expression returns a truthy value, returns that value.

The frame.wait_for_function(expression, **kwargs) can be used to observe viewport size change:

from playwright.sync_api import sync_playwright

def run(playwright):
webkit = playwright.webkit
browser = webkit.launch()
page = browser.new_page()
page.evaluate("window.x = 0; setTimeout(() => { window.x = 100 }, 1000);")
page.main_frame.wait_for_function("() => window.x > 0")
browser.close()

with sync_playwright() as playwright:
run(playwright)

To pass an argument to the predicate of frame.waitForFunction function:

selector = ".foo"
frame.wait_for_function("selector => !!document.querySelector(selector)", selector)

frame.wait_for_load_state(**kwargs)

Added in: v1.8

Waits for the required load state to be reached.

This returns when the frame reaches a required load state, load by default. The navigation must have been committed when this method is called. If current document has already reached the required state, resolves immediately.

frame.click("button") # click triggers navigation.
frame.wait_for_load_state() # the promise resolves after "load" event.

frame.wait_for_selector(selector, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <str> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • state <"attached"|"detached"|"visible"|"hidden"> Defaults to 'visible'. Can be either:#
    • 'attached' - wait for element to be present in DOM.
    • 'detached' - wait for element to not be present in DOM.
    • 'visible' - wait for element to have non-empty bounding box and no visibility:hidden. Note that element without any content or with display:none has an empty bounding box and is not considered visible.
    • 'hidden' - wait for element to be either detached from DOM, or have an empty bounding box or visibility:hidden. This is opposite to the 'visible' option.
  • strict <bool> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.14#
  • timeout <float> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <NoneType|ElementHandle>#

Returns when element specified by selector satisfies state option. Returns null if waiting for hidden or detached.

note

Playwright automatically waits for element to be ready before performing an action. Using Locator objects and web-first assertions make the code wait-for-selector-free.

Wait for the selector to satisfy state option (either appear/disappear from dom, or become visible/hidden). If at the moment of calling the method selector already satisfies the condition, the method will return immediately. If the selector doesn't satisfy the condition for the timeout milliseconds, the function will throw.

This method works across navigations:

from playwright.sync_api import sync_playwright

def run(playwright):
chromium = playwright.chromium
browser = chromium.launch()
page = browser.new_page()
for current_url in ["https://google.com", "https://bbc.com"]:
page.goto(current_url, wait_until="domcontentloaded")
element = page.main_frame.wait_for_selector("img")
print("Loaded image: " + str(element.get_attribute("src")))
browser.close()

with sync_playwright() as playwright:
run(playwright)

frame.wait_for_timeout(timeout)

Added in: v1.8

Waits for the given timeout in milliseconds.

Note that frame.waitForTimeout() should only be used for debugging. Tests using the timer in production are going to be flaky. Use signals such as network events, selectors becoming visible and others instead.

frame.wait_for_url(url, **kwargs)

Added in: v1.11
  • url <str|Pattern|Callable[URL]:bool> A glob pattern, regex pattern or predicate receiving URL to match while waiting for the navigation. Note that if the parameter is a string without wildcard characters, the method will wait for navigation to URL that is exactly equal to the string.#
  • timeout <float> Maximum operation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browser_context.set_default_navigation_timeout(timeout), browser_context.set_default_timeout(timeout), page.set_default_navigation_timeout(timeout) or page.set_default_timeout(timeout) methods.#
  • wait_until <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle"|"commit"> When to consider operation succeeded, defaults to load. Events can be either:#
    • 'domcontentloaded' - consider operation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
    • 'load' - consider operation to be finished when the load event is fired.
    • 'networkidle' - consider operation to be finished when there are no network connections for at least 500 ms.
    • 'commit' - consider operation to be finished when network response is received and the document started loading.
  • returns: <NoneType>#

Waits for the frame to navigate to the given URL.

frame.click("a.delayed-navigation") # clicking the link will indirectly cause a navigation
frame.wait_for_url("**/target.html")