Playwright tests can be executed in CI environments. We have created sample configurations for common CI providers.
3 steps to get your tests running on CI:
- Ensure CI agent can run browsers: Use our Docker image in Linux agents. Windows and macOS agents do not require any additional dependencies.
- Install Playwright:
- Run your tests:
The Playwright GitHub Action can be used to run Playwright tests on GitHub Actions.
We run our tests on GitHub Actions, across a matrix of 3 platforms (Windows, Linux, macOS) and 3 browsers (Chromium, Firefox, WebKit).
We have a pre-built Docker image which can either be used directly, or as a reference to update your existing Docker definitions.
By default, Docker runs a container with a
/dev/shmshared memory space 64MB. This is typically too small for Chromium and will cause Chromium to crash when rendering large pages. To fix, run the container with
docker run --shm-size=1gbto increase the size of
/dev/shm. Since Chromium 65, this is no longer necessary. Instead, launch the browser with the
--disable-dev-shm-usageflag:Browser browser = playwright.chromium().launch(new BrowserType.LaunchOptions().setArgs(Arrays.asList("--disable-dev-shm-usage")));
This will write shared memory files into
/dev/shm. See crbug.com/736452 for more details.
--ipc=hostis also recommended when using Chromium—without it Chromium can run out of memory and crash. Learn more about this option in Docker docs.
Seeing other weird errors when launching Chromium? Try running your container with
docker run --cap-add=SYS_ADMINwhen developing locally.
dumb-init is worth checking out if you're experiencing a lot of zombies Chromium processes sticking around. There's special treatment for processes with PID=1, which makes it hard to terminate Chromium properly in some cases (e.g. in Docker).
For Windows or macOS agents, no additional configuration required, just install Playwright and run your tests.
For Linux agents, you can use our Docker container with Azure Pipelines support for running containerized jobs. Alternatively, you can refer to the Dockerfile to see additional dependencies that need to be installed on a Ubuntu agent.
- User namespace cloning should be enabled to support proper sandboxing
- xvfb should be launched in order to run Chromium in non-headless mode (e.g. to test Chrome Extensions)
- If your project does not have
package-lock.json, Travis would be auto-caching
node_modulesdirectory. If you run
npm install(instead of
npm ci), it is possible that the browser binaries are not downloaded. Fix this with these steps outlined below.
To sum up, your
.travis.yml might look like this:
Running Playwright on CircleCI requires the following steps:
Use the pre-built Docker image in your config like so:docker:- image: mcr.microsoft.com/playwright:focalenvironment:NODE_ENV: development # Needed if playwright is in `devDependencies`
If you’re using Playwright through Jest, then you may encounter an error spawning child processes:[00:00.0] jest args: --e2e --spec --max-workers=36Error: spawn ENOMEMat ChildProcess.spawn (internal/child_process.js:394:11)
This is likely caused by Jest autodetecting the number of processes on the entire machine (
36) rather than the number allowed to your container (
2). To fix this, set
jest --maxWorkers=2in your test command.
Jenkins supports Docker agents for pipelines. Use the Playwright Docker image to run tests on Jenkins.
While the Docker image supports sandboxing for Chromium, it does not work in the Bitbucket Pipelines environment. To launch Chromium on Bitbucket Pipelines, use the
chromiumSandbox: false launch argument.
To run Playwright tests on GitLab, use our public Docker image (see Dockerfile).
By default, Playwright downloads browser binaries when the Playwright NPM package is installed. The NPM packages have a
postinstall hook that downloads the browser binaries. This behavior can be customized with environment variables.
Caching browsers on CI is strictly optional: The
postinstall hooks should execute and download the browser binaries on every run.
node_modules are cached (Node-specific)#
Most CI providers cache the npm-cache directory (located at
$HOME/.npm). If your CI pipelines caches the
node_modules directory and you run
npm install (instead of
npm ci), the default configuration
will not work. This is because the
npm install step will find the Playwright NPM package on disk and not execute the
Travis CI automatically caches
node_modulesif your repo does not have a
This behavior can be fixed with one of the following approaches:
- Move to caching
$HOME/.npmor the npm-cache directory. (This is the default behavior in most CI providers.)
PLAYWRIGHT_BROWSERS_PATH=0as the environment variable before running
npm install. This will download the browser binaries in the
node_modulesdirectory and cache them with the package code. See installation docs.
npm ci(instead of
npm install) which forces a clean install: by removing the existing
node_modulesdirectory. See npm docs.
- Cache the browser binaries, with the steps below.
With the default behavior, Playwright downloads the browser binaries in the following directories:
To cache the browser downloads between CI runs, cache this location in your CI configuration, against a hash of the Playwright version.
Playwright supports the
DEBUG environment variable to output debug logs during execution. Setting it to
pw:browser* is helpful while debugging
Error: Failed to launch browser errors.
By default, Playwright launches browsers in headless mode. This can be changed by passing a flag when the browser is launched.
On Linux agents, headed execution requires Xvfb to be installed. Our Docker image and GitHub Action have Xvfb pre-installed. To run browsers in headed mode with Xvfb, add
xvfb-run before the Node.js command.