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Version: 1.23

Frame

At every point of time, page exposes its current frame tree via the Page.mainFrame() and Frame.childFrames() methods.

Frame object's lifecycle is controlled by three events, dispatched on the page object:

An example of dumping frame tree:

import com.microsoft.playwright.*;

public class Example {
public static void main(String[] args) {
try (Playwright playwright = Playwright.create()) {
BrowserType firefox = playwright.firefox();
Browser browser = firefox.launch();
Page page = browser.newPage();
page.navigate("https://www.google.com/chrome/browser/canary.html");
dumpFrameTree(page.mainFrame(), "");
browser.close();
}
}
static void dumpFrameTree(Frame frame, String indent) {
System.out.println(indent + frame.url());
for (Frame child : frame.childFrames()) {
dumpFrameTree(child, indent + " ");
}
}
}

Frame.addScriptTag([options])

  • options <Frame.AddScriptTagOptions>
    • setContent <String> Raw JavaScript content to be injected into frame.#
    • setPath <Path> Path to the JavaScript file to be injected into frame. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to the current working directory.#
    • setType <String> Script type. Use 'module' in order to load a Javascript ES6 module. See script for more details.#
    • setUrl <String> URL of a script to be added.#
  • returns: <ElementHandle>#

Returns the added tag when the script's onload fires or when the script content was injected into frame.

Adds a <script> tag into the page with the desired url or content.

Frame.addStyleTag([options])

  • options <Frame.AddStyleTagOptions>
    • setContent <String> Raw CSS content to be injected into frame.#
    • setPath <Path> Path to the CSS file to be injected into frame. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to the current working directory.#
    • setUrl <String> URL of the <link> tag.#
  • returns: <ElementHandle>#

Returns the added tag when the stylesheet's onload fires or when the CSS content was injected into frame.

Adds a <link rel="stylesheet"> tag into the page with the desired url or a <style type="text/css"> tag with the content.

Frame.check(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.CheckOptions>
    • setForce <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • setNoWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • setPosition <Position> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • setTrial <boolean> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.#
  • returns: <void>#

This method checks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Ensure that matched element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method throws. If the element is already checked, this method returns immediately.
  3. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  4. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  5. Use Page.mouse() to click in the center of the element.
  6. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  7. Ensure that the element is now checked. If not, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Frame.childFrames()

Frame.click(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.ClickOptions>
    • setButton <enum MouseButton { LEFT, RIGHT, MIDDLE }> Defaults to left.#
    • setClickCount <int> defaults to 1. See UIEvent.detail.#
    • setDelay <double> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.#
    • setForce <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • setModifiers <List<enum KeyboardModifier { ALT, CONTROL, META, SHIFT }>> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.#
    • setNoWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • setPosition <Position> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • setTrial <boolean> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.#
  • returns: <void>#

This method clicks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use Page.mouse() to click in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Frame.content()

Gets the full HTML contents of the frame, including the doctype.

Frame.dblclick(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.DblclickOptions>
    • setButton <enum MouseButton { LEFT, RIGHT, MIDDLE }> Defaults to left.#
    • setDelay <double> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.#
    • setForce <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • setModifiers <List<enum KeyboardModifier { ALT, CONTROL, META, SHIFT }>> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.#
    • setNoWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • setPosition <Position> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • setTrial <boolean> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.#
  • returns: <void>#

This method double clicks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use Page.mouse() to double click in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set. Note that if the first click of the dblclick() triggers a navigation event, this method will throw.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

note

frame.dblclick() dispatches two click events and a single dblclick event.

Frame.dispatchEvent(selector, type[, eventInit, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • type <String> DOM event type: "click", "dragstart", etc.#
  • eventInit <EvaluationArgument> Optional event-specific initialization properties.#
  • options <Frame.DispatchEventOptions>
  • returns: <void>#

The snippet below dispatches the click event on the element. Regardless of the visibility state of the element, click is dispatched. This is equivalent to calling element.click().

frame.dispatchEvent("button#submit", "click");

Under the hood, it creates an instance of an event based on the given type, initializes it with eventInit properties and dispatches it on the element. Events are composed, cancelable and bubble by default.

Since eventInit is event-specific, please refer to the events documentation for the lists of initial properties:

You can also specify JSHandle as the property value if you want live objects to be passed into the event:

// Note you can only create DataTransfer in Chromium and Firefox
JSHandle dataTransfer = frame.evaluateHandle("() => new DataTransfer()");
Map<String, Object> arg = new HashMap<>();
arg.put("dataTransfer", dataTransfer);
frame.dispatchEvent("#source", "dragstart", arg);

Frame.dragAndDrop(source, target[, options])

  • source <String>#
  • target <String>#
  • options <Frame.DragAndDropOptions>
    • setForce <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • setNoWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • setSourcePosition <SourcePosition> Clicks on the source element at this point relative to the top-left corner of the element's padding box. If not specified, some visible point of the element is used.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTargetPosition <TargetPosition> Drops on the target element at this point relative to the top-left corner of the element's padding box. If not specified, some visible point of the element is used.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • setTrial <boolean> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.#
  • returns: <void>#

Frame.evalOnSelector(selector, expression[, arg, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • expression <String> JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If it looks like a function declaration, it is interpreted as a function. Otherwise, evaluated as an expression.#
  • arg <EvaluationArgument> Optional argument to pass to expression.#
  • options <Frame.EvalOnSelectorOptions>
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
  • returns: <Object>#

Returns the return value of expression.

caution

This method does not wait for the element to pass actionability checks and therefore can lead to the flaky tests. Use Locator.evaluate(expression[, arg, options]), other Locator helper methods or web-first assertions instead.

The method finds an element matching the specified selector within the frame and passes it as a first argument to expression. See Working with selectors for more details. If no elements match the selector, the method throws an error.

If expression returns a Promise, then Frame.evalOnSelector(selector, expression[, arg, options]) would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

String searchValue = (String) frame.evalOnSelector("#search", "el => el.value");
String preloadHref = (String) frame.evalOnSelector("link[rel=preload]", "el => el.href");
String html = (String) frame.evalOnSelector(".main-container", "(e, suffix) => e.outerHTML + suffix", "hello");

Frame.evalOnSelectorAll(selector, expression[, arg])

  • selector <String> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • expression <String> JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If it looks like a function declaration, it is interpreted as a function. Otherwise, evaluated as an expression.#
  • arg <EvaluationArgument> Optional argument to pass to expression.#
  • returns: <Object>#

Returns the return value of expression.

note

In most cases, Locator.evaluateAll(expression[, arg]), other Locator helper methods and web-first assertions do a better job.

The method finds all elements matching the specified selector within the frame and passes an array of matched elements as a first argument to expression. See Working with selectors for more details.

If expression returns a Promise, then Frame.evalOnSelectorAll(selector, expression[, arg]) would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

boolean divsCounts = (boolean) page.evalOnSelectorAll("div", "(divs, min) => divs.length >= min", 10);

Frame.evaluate(expression[, arg])

  • expression <String> JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If it looks like a function declaration, it is interpreted as a function. Otherwise, evaluated as an expression.#
  • arg <EvaluationArgument> Optional argument to pass to expression.#
  • returns: <Object>#

Returns the return value of expression.

If the function passed to the Frame.evaluate(expression[, arg]) returns a Promise, then Frame.evaluate(expression[, arg]) would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

If the function passed to the Frame.evaluate(expression[, arg]) returns a non-Serializable value, then Frame.evaluate(expression[, arg]) returns undefined. Playwright also supports transferring some additional values that are not serializable by JSON: -0, NaN, Infinity, -Infinity.

Object result = frame.evaluate("([x, y]) => {\n" +
" return Promise.resolve(x * y);\n" +
"}", Arrays.asList(7, 8));
System.out.println(result); // prints "56"

A string can also be passed in instead of a function.

System.out.println(frame.evaluate("1 + 2")); // prints "3"

ElementHandle instances can be passed as an argument to the Frame.evaluate(expression[, arg]):

ElementHandle bodyHandle = frame.evaluate("document.body");
String html = (String) frame.evaluate("([body, suffix]) => body.innerHTML + suffix", Arrays.asList(bodyHandle, "hello"));
bodyHandle.dispose();

Frame.evaluateHandle(expression[, arg])

  • expression <String> JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If it looks like a function declaration, it is interpreted as a function. Otherwise, evaluated as an expression.#
  • arg <EvaluationArgument> Optional argument to pass to expression.#
  • returns: <JSHandle>#

Returns the return value of expression as a JSHandle.

The only difference between Frame.evaluate(expression[, arg]) and Frame.evaluateHandle(expression[, arg]) is that Frame.evaluateHandle(expression[, arg]) returns JSHandle.

If the function, passed to the Frame.evaluateHandle(expression[, arg]), returns a Promise, then Frame.evaluateHandle(expression[, arg]) would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

// Handle for the window object.
JSHandle aWindowHandle = frame.evaluateHandle("() => Promise.resolve(window)");

A string can also be passed in instead of a function.

JSHandle aHandle = frame.evaluateHandle("document"); // Handle for the "document".

JSHandle instances can be passed as an argument to the Frame.evaluateHandle(expression[, arg]):

JSHandle aHandle = frame.evaluateHandle("() => document.body");
JSHandle resultHandle = frame.evaluateHandle("([body, suffix]) => body.innerHTML + suffix", Arrays.asList(aHandle, "hello"));
System.out.println(resultHandle.jsonValue());
resultHandle.dispose();

Frame.fill(selector, value[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • value <String> Value to fill for the <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element.#
  • options <Frame.FillOptions>
    • setForce <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • setNoWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <void>#

This method waits for an element matching selector, waits for actionability checks, focuses the element, fills it and triggers an input event after filling. Note that you can pass an empty string to clear the input field.

If the target element is not an <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element, this method throws an error. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, the control will be filled instead.

To send fine-grained keyboard events, use Frame.type(selector, text[, options]).

Frame.focus(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.FocusOptions>
  • returns: <void>#

This method fetches an element with selector and focuses it. If there's no element matching selector, the method waits until a matching element appears in the DOM.

Frame.frameElement()

Returns the frame or iframe element handle which corresponds to this frame.

This is an inverse of ElementHandle.contentFrame(). Note that returned handle actually belongs to the parent frame.

This method throws an error if the frame has been detached before frameElement() returns.

ElementHandle frameElement = frame.frameElement();
Frame contentFrame = frameElement.contentFrame();
System.out.println(frame == contentFrame); // -> true

Frame.frameLocator(selector)

When working with iframes, you can create a frame locator that will enter the iframe and allow selecting elements in that iframe. Following snippet locates element with text "Submit" in the iframe with id my-frame, like <iframe id="my-frame">:

Locator locator = frame.frameLocator("#my-iframe").locator("text=Submit");
locator.click();

Frame.getAttribute(selector, name[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • name <String> Attribute name to get the value for.#
  • options <Frame.GetAttributeOptions>
  • returns: <null|String>#

Returns element attribute value.

Frame.hover(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.HoverOptions>
    • setForce <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • setModifiers <List<enum KeyboardModifier { ALT, CONTROL, META, SHIFT }>> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.#
    • setPosition <Position> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • setTrial <boolean> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.#
  • returns: <void>#

This method hovers over an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use Page.mouse() to hover over the center of the element, or the specified position.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Frame.innerHTML(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.InnerHTMLOptions>
  • returns: <String>#

Returns element.innerHTML.

Frame.innerText(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.InnerTextOptions>
  • returns: <String>#

Returns element.innerText.

Frame.inputValue(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.InputValueOptions>
  • returns: <String>#

Returns input.value for the selected <input> or <textarea> or <select> element.

Throws for non-input elements. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, returns the value of the control.

Frame.isChecked(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.IsCheckedOptions>
  • returns: <boolean>#

Returns whether the element is checked. Throws if the element is not a checkbox or radio input.

Frame.isDetached()

Returns true if the frame has been detached, or false otherwise.

Frame.isDisabled(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.IsDisabledOptions>
  • returns: <boolean>#

Returns whether the element is disabled, the opposite of enabled.

Frame.isEditable(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.IsEditableOptions>
  • returns: <boolean>#

Returns whether the element is editable.

Frame.isEnabled(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.IsEnabledOptions>
  • returns: <boolean>#

Returns whether the element is enabled.

Frame.isHidden(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.IsHiddenOptions>
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> DEPRECATED This option is ignored. Frame.isHidden(selector[, options]) does not wait for the element to become hidden and returns immediately.#
  • returns: <boolean>#

Returns whether the element is hidden, the opposite of visible. selector that does not match any elements is considered hidden.

Frame.isVisible(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.IsVisibleOptions>
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> DEPRECATED This option is ignored. Frame.isVisible(selector[, options]) does not wait for the element to become visible and returns immediately.#
  • returns: <boolean>#

Returns whether the element is visible. selector that does not match any elements is considered not visible.

Frame.locator(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to use when resolving DOM element. See working with selectors for more details.#

  • options <Frame.LocatorOptions>

    • setHas <Locator> Matches elements containing an element that matches an inner locator. Inner locator is queried against the outer one. For example, article that has text=Playwright matches <article><div>Playwright</div></article>.#

      Note that outer and inner locators must belong to the same frame. Inner locator must not contain FrameLocators.

    • setHasText <String|Pattern> Matches elements containing specified text somewhere inside, possibly in a child or a descendant element. When passed a string, matching is case-insensitive and searches for a substring. For example, "Playwright" matches <article><div>Playwright</div></article>.#

  • returns: <Locator>#

The method returns an element locator that can be used to perform actions in the frame. Locator is resolved to the element immediately before performing an action, so a series of actions on the same locator can in fact be performed on different DOM elements. That would happen if the DOM structure between those actions has changed.

Learn more about locators.

Frame.name()

Returns frame's name attribute as specified in the tag.

If the name is empty, returns the id attribute instead.

note

This value is calculated once when the frame is created, and will not update if the attribute is changed later.

Frame.navigate(url[, options])

  • url <String> URL to navigate frame to. The url should include scheme, e.g. https://.#
  • options <Frame.NavigateOptions>
  • returns: <null|Response>#

Returns the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect.

The method will throw an error if:

  • there's an SSL error (e.g. in case of self-signed certificates).
  • target URL is invalid.
  • the timeout is exceeded during navigation.
  • the remote server does not respond or is unreachable.
  • the main resource failed to load.

The method will not throw an error when any valid HTTP status code is returned by the remote server, including 404 "Not Found" and 500 "Internal Server Error". The status code for such responses can be retrieved by calling Response.status().

note

The method either throws an error or returns a main resource response. The only exceptions are navigation to about:blank or navigation to the same URL with a different hash, which would succeed and return null.

note

Headless mode doesn't support navigation to a PDF document. See the upstream issue.

Frame.page()

Returns the page containing this frame.

Frame.parentFrame()

Parent frame, if any. Detached frames and main frames return null.

Frame.press(selector, key[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • key <String> Name of the key to press or a character to generate, such as ArrowLeft or a.#
  • options <Frame.PressOptions>
    • setDelay <double> Time to wait between keydown and keyup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.#
    • setNoWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <void>#

key can specify the intended keyboardEvent.key value or a single character to generate the text for. A superset of the key values can be found here. Examples of the keys are:

F1 - F12, Digit0- Digit9, KeyA- KeyZ, Backquote, Minus, Equal, Backslash, Backspace, Tab, Delete, Escape, ArrowDown, End, Enter, Home, Insert, PageDown, PageUp, ArrowRight, ArrowUp, etc.

Following modification shortcuts are also supported: Shift, Control, Alt, Meta, ShiftLeft.

Holding down Shift will type the text that corresponds to the key in the upper case.

If key is a single character, it is case-sensitive, so the values a and A will generate different respective texts.

Shortcuts such as key: "Control+o" or key: "Control+Shift+T" are supported as well. When specified with the modifier, modifier is pressed and being held while the subsequent key is being pressed.

Frame.querySelector(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.QuerySelectorOptions>
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
  • returns: <null|ElementHandle>#

Returns the ElementHandle pointing to the frame element.

caution

The use of ElementHandle is discouraged, use Locator objects and web-first assertions instead.

The method finds an element matching the specified selector within the frame. See Working with selectors for more details. If no elements match the selector, returns null.

Frame.querySelectorAll(selector)

Returns the ElementHandles pointing to the frame elements.

caution

The use of ElementHandle is discouraged, use Locator objects instead.

The method finds all elements matching the specified selector within the frame. See Working with selectors for more details. If no elements match the selector, returns empty array.

Frame.selectOption(selector, values[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • values <null|String|ElementHandle|String[]|SelectOption|ElementHandle[]|SelectOption[]> Options to select. If the <select> has the multiple attribute, all matching options are selected, otherwise only the first option matching one of the passed options is selected. String values are equivalent to {value:'string'}. Option is considered matching if all specified properties match.#
    • setValue <String> Matches by option.value. Optional.
    • setLabel <String> Matches by option.label. Optional.
    • setIndex <int> Matches by the index. Optional.
  • options <Frame.SelectOptionOptions>
    • setForce <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • setNoWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <List<String>>#

This method waits for an element matching selector, waits for actionability checks, waits until all specified options are present in the <select> element and selects these options.

If the target element is not a <select> element, this method throws an error. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, the control will be used instead.

Returns the array of option values that have been successfully selected.

Triggers a change and input event once all the provided options have been selected.

// single selection matching the value
frame.selectOption("select#colors", "blue");
// single selection matching both the value and the label
frame.selectOption("select#colors", new SelectOption().setLabel("Blue"));
// multiple selection
frame.selectOption("select#colors", new String[] {"red", "green", "blue"});

Frame.setChecked(selector, checked[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • checked <boolean> Whether to check or uncheck the checkbox.#
  • options <Frame.SetCheckedOptions>
    • setForce <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • setNoWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • setPosition <Position> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • setTrial <boolean> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.#
  • returns: <void>#

This method checks or unchecks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Ensure that matched element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method throws.
  3. If the element already has the right checked state, this method returns immediately.
  4. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  5. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  6. Use Page.mouse() to click in the center of the element.
  7. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  8. Ensure that the element is now checked or unchecked. If not, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Frame.setContent(html[, options])

  • html <String> HTML markup to assign to the page.#
  • options <Frame.SetContentOptions>
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum operation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), Page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • setWaitUntil <enum WaitUntilState { LOAD, DOMCONTENTLOADED, NETWORKIDLE, COMMIT }> When to consider operation succeeded, defaults to load. Events can be either:#
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider operation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'load' - consider operation to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'networkidle' - consider operation to be finished when there are no network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'commit' - consider operation to be finished when network response is received and the document started loading.
  • returns: <void>#

Frame.setInputFiles(selector, files[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • files <Path|Path[]|FilePayload|FilePayload[]>#
  • options <Frame.SetInputFilesOptions>
    • setNoWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <void>#

Sets the value of the file input to these file paths or files. If some of the filePaths are relative paths, then they are resolved relative to the current working directory. For empty array, clears the selected files.

This method expects selector to point to an input element. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, targets the control instead.

Frame.tap(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.TapOptions>
    • setForce <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • setModifiers <List<enum KeyboardModifier { ALT, CONTROL, META, SHIFT }>> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.#
    • setNoWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • setPosition <Position> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • setTrial <boolean> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.#
  • returns: <void>#

This method taps an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use Page.touchscreen() to tap the center of the element, or the specified position.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

note

frame.tap() requires that the hasTouch option of the browser context be set to true.

Frame.textContent(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.TextContentOptions>
  • returns: <null|String>#

Returns element.textContent.

Frame.title()

Returns the page title.

Frame.type(selector, text[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • text <String> A text to type into a focused element.#
  • options <Frame.TypeOptions>
    • setDelay <double> Time to wait between key presses in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.#
    • setNoWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <void>#

Sends a keydown, keypress/input, and keyup event for each character in the text. frame.type can be used to send fine-grained keyboard events. To fill values in form fields, use Frame.fill(selector, value[, options]).

To press a special key, like Control or ArrowDown, use Keyboard.press(key[, options]).

// Types instantly
frame.type("#mytextarea", "Hello");
// Types slower, like a user
frame.type("#mytextarea", "World", new Frame.TypeOptions().setDelay(100));

Frame.uncheck(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to search for an element. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.UncheckOptions>
    • setForce <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • setNoWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • setPosition <Position> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • setTrial <boolean> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.#
  • returns: <void>#

This method checks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Ensure that matched element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method throws. If the element is already unchecked, this method returns immediately.
  3. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  4. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  5. Use Page.mouse() to click in the center of the element.
  6. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  7. Ensure that the element is now unchecked. If not, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Frame.url()

Returns frame's url.

Frame.waitForFunction(expression[, arg, options])

  • expression <String> JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If it looks like a function declaration, it is interpreted as a function. Otherwise, evaluated as an expression.#
  • arg <EvaluationArgument> Optional argument to pass to expression.#
  • options <Frame.WaitForFunctionOptions>
    • setPollingInterval <double> If specified, then it is treated as an interval in milliseconds at which the function would be executed. By default if the option is not specified expression is executed in requestAnimationFrame callback.#
    • setTimeout <double> maximum time to wait for in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout).#
  • returns: <JSHandle>#

Returns when the expression returns a truthy value, returns that value.

The Frame.waitForFunction(expression[, arg, options]) can be used to observe viewport size change:

import com.microsoft.playwright.*;

public class Example {
public static void main(String[] args) {
try (Playwright playwright = Playwright.create()) {
BrowserType firefox = playwright.firefox();
Browser browser = firefox.launch();
Page page = browser.newPage();
page.setViewportSize(50, 50);
page.mainFrame().waitForFunction("window.innerWidth < 100");
browser.close();
}
}
}

To pass an argument to the predicate of frame.waitForFunction function:

String selector = ".foo";
frame.waitForFunction("selector => !!document.querySelector(selector)", selector);

Frame.waitForLoadState([state, options])

Waits for the required load state to be reached.

This returns when the frame reaches a required load state, load by default. The navigation must have been committed when this method is called. If current document has already reached the required state, resolves immediately.

frame.click("button"); // Click triggers navigation.
frame.waitForLoadState(); // Waits for "load" state by default.

Frame.waitForNavigation([options], callback)

  • options <Frame.WaitForNavigationOptions>
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum operation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), Page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • setUrl <String|Pattern|Predicate<String>> A glob pattern, regex pattern or predicate receiving [URL] to match while waiting for the navigation. Note that if the parameter is a string without wildcard characters, the method will wait for navigation to URL that is exactly equal to the string.#
    • setWaitUntil <enum WaitUntilState { LOAD, DOMCONTENTLOADED, NETWORKIDLE, COMMIT }> When to consider operation succeeded, defaults to load. Events can be either:#
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider operation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'load' - consider operation to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'networkidle' - consider operation to be finished when there are no network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'commit' - consider operation to be finished when network response is received and the document started loading.
  • callback <Runnable> Callback that performs the action triggering the event.#
  • returns: <null|Response>#

Waits for the frame navigation and returns the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect. In case of navigation to a different anchor or navigation due to History API usage, the navigation will resolve with null.

This method waits for the frame to navigate to a new URL. It is useful for when you run code which will indirectly cause the frame to navigate. Consider this example:

// The method returns after navigation has finished
Response response = frame.waitForNavigation(() -> {
// Clicking the link will indirectly cause a navigation
frame.click("a.delayed-navigation");
});
note

Usage of the History API to change the URL is considered a navigation.

Frame.waitForSelector(selector[, options])

  • selector <String> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <Frame.WaitForSelectorOptions>
    • setState <enum WaitForSelectorState { ATTACHED, DETACHED, VISIBLE, HIDDEN }> Defaults to 'visible'. Can be either:#
      • 'attached' - wait for element to be present in DOM.
      • 'detached' - wait for element to not be present in DOM.
      • 'visible' - wait for element to have non-empty bounding box and no visibility:hidden. Note that element without any content or with display:none has an empty bounding box and is not considered visible.
      • 'hidden' - wait for element to be either detached from DOM, or have an empty bounding box or visibility:hidden. This is opposite to the 'visible' option.
    • setStrict <boolean> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more then one element, the call throws an exception.#
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <null|ElementHandle>#

Returns when element specified by selector satisfies state option. Returns null if waiting for hidden or detached.

note

Playwright automatically waits for element to be ready before performing an action. Using Locator objects and web-first assertions make the code wait-for-selector-free.

Wait for the selector to satisfy state option (either appear/disappear from dom, or become visible/hidden). If at the moment of calling the method selector already satisfies the condition, the method will return immediately. If the selector doesn't satisfy the condition for the timeout milliseconds, the function will throw.

This method works across navigations:

import com.microsoft.playwright.*;

public class Example {
public static void main(String[] args) {
try (Playwright playwright = Playwright.create()) {
BrowserType chromium = playwright.chromium();
Browser browser = chromium.launch();
Page page = browser.newPage();
for (String currentURL : Arrays.asList("https://google.com", "https://bbc.com")) {
page.navigate(currentURL);
ElementHandle element = page.mainFrame().waitForSelector("img");
System.out.println("Loaded image: " + element.getAttribute("src"));
}
browser.close();
}
}
}

Frame.waitForTimeout(timeout)

Waits for the given timeout in milliseconds.

Note that frame.waitForTimeout() should only be used for debugging. Tests using the timer in production are going to be flaky. Use signals such as network events, selectors becoming visible and others instead.

Frame.waitForURL(url[, options])

  • url <String|Pattern|Predicate<String>> A glob pattern, regex pattern or predicate receiving [URL] to match while waiting for the navigation. Note that if the parameter is a string without wildcard characters, the method will wait for navigation to URL that is exactly equal to the string.#
  • options <Frame.WaitForURLOptions>
    • setTimeout <double> Maximum operation time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), BrowserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), Page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or Page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • setWaitUntil <enum WaitUntilState { LOAD, DOMCONTENTLOADED, NETWORKIDLE, COMMIT }> When to consider operation succeeded, defaults to load. Events can be either:#
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider operation to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'load' - consider operation to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'networkidle' - consider operation to be finished when there are no network connections for at least 500 ms.
      • 'commit' - consider operation to be finished when network response is received and the document started loading.
  • returns: <void>#

Waits for the frame to navigate to the given URL.

frame.click("a.delayed-navigation"); // Clicking the link will indirectly cause a navigation
frame.waitForURL("**/target.html");