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ElementHandle

ElementHandle represents an in-page DOM element. ElementHandles can be created with the Page.QuerySelectorAsync(selector, options) method.

Discouraged

The use of ElementHandle is discouraged, use Locator objects and web-first assertions instead.

var handle = await page.QuerySelectorAsync("a");
await handle.ClickAsync();

ElementHandle prevents DOM element from garbage collection unless the handle is disposed with JsHandle.DisposeAsync(). ElementHandles are auto-disposed when their origin frame gets navigated.

ElementHandle instances can be used as an argument in Page.EvalOnSelectorAsync(selector, expression, arg, options) and Page.EvaluateAsync(expression, arg) methods.

The difference between the Locator and ElementHandle is that the ElementHandle points to a particular element, while Locator captures the logic of how to retrieve an element.

In the example below, handle points to a particular DOM element on page. If that element changes text or is used by React to render an entirely different component, handle is still pointing to that very DOM element. This can lead to unexpected behaviors.

var handle = await page.QuerySelectorAsync("text=Submit");
await handle.HoverAsync();
await handle.ClickAsync();

With the locator, every time the element is used, up-to-date DOM element is located in the page using the selector. So in the snippet below, underlying DOM element is going to be located twice.

var locator = page.Locator("text=Submit");
await locator.HoverAsync();
await locator.ClickAsync();

ElementHandle.BoundingBoxAsync()

Added in: v1.8
  • returns: <BoundingBox?>#
    • x <double> the x coordinate of the element in pixels.
    • y <double> the y coordinate of the element in pixels.
    • width <double> the width of the element in pixels.
    • height <double> the height of the element in pixels.

This method returns the bounding box of the element, or null if the element is not visible. The bounding box is calculated relative to the main frame viewport - which is usually the same as the browser window.

Scrolling affects the returned bounding box, similarly to Element.getBoundingClientRect. That means x and/or y may be negative.

Elements from child frames return the bounding box relative to the main frame, unlike the Element.getBoundingClientRect.

Assuming the page is static, it is safe to use bounding box coordinates to perform input. For example, the following snippet should click the center of the element.

var box = await elementHandle.BoundingBoxAsync();
await page.Mouse.ClickAsync(box.X + box.Width / 2, box.Y + box.Height / 2);

ElementHandle.CheckAsync(options)

Added in: v1.8
  • options <ElementHandleCheckOptions?>
    • Force <bool?> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • NoWaitAfter <bool?> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • Position <Position?> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element. Added in: v1.11#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • Trial <bool?> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it. Added in: v1.11#
  • returns: <void>#

This method checks the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Ensure that element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method throws. If the element is already checked, this method returns immediately.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use Page.Mouse to click in the center of the element.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  6. Ensure that the element is now checked. If not, this method throws.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

ElementHandle.ClickAsync(options)

Added in: v1.8
  • options <ElementHandleClickOptions?>
    • Button <enum MouseButton { Left, Right, Middle }?> Defaults to left.#
    • ClickCount <int?> defaults to 1. See UIEvent.detail.#
    • Delay <double?> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.#
    • Force <bool?> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • Modifiers <IEnumerable?<enum KeyboardModifier { Alt, Control, Meta, Shift }>> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.#
    • NoWaitAfter <bool?> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • Position <Position?> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • Trial <bool?> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it. Added in: v1.11#
  • returns: <void>#

This method clicks the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  2. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  3. Use Page.Mouse to click in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  4. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

ElementHandle.ContentFrameAsync()

Added in: v1.8

Returns the content frame for element handles referencing iframe nodes, or null otherwise

ElementHandle.DblClickAsync(options)

Added in: v1.8
  • options <ElementHandleDblClickOptions?>
    • Button <enum MouseButton { Left, Right, Middle }?> Defaults to left.#
    • Delay <double?> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.#
    • Force <bool?> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • Modifiers <IEnumerable?<enum KeyboardModifier { Alt, Control, Meta, Shift }>> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.#
    • NoWaitAfter <bool?> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • Position <Position?> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • Trial <bool?> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it. Added in: v1.11#
  • returns: <void>#

This method double clicks the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  2. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  3. Use Page.Mouse to double click in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  4. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set. Note that if the first click of the dblclick() triggers a navigation event, this method will throw.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

note

elementHandle.dblclick() dispatches two click events and a single dblclick event.

ElementHandle.DispatchEventAsync(type, eventInit)

Added in: v1.8
  • type <string> DOM event type: "click", "dragstart", etc.#
  • eventInit <EvaluationArgument?> Optional event-specific initialization properties.#
  • returns: <void>#

The snippet below dispatches the click event on the element. Regardless of the visibility state of the element, click is dispatched. This is equivalent to calling element.click().

await elementHandle.DispatchEventAsync("click");

Under the hood, it creates an instance of an event based on the given type, initializes it with eventInit properties and dispatches it on the element. Events are composed, cancelable and bubble by default.

Since eventInit is event-specific, please refer to the events documentation for the lists of initial properties:

You can also specify JSHandle as the property value if you want live objects to be passed into the event:

var dataTransfer = await page.EvaluateHandleAsync("() => new DataTransfer()");
await elementHandle.DispatchEventAsync("dragstart", new Dictionary<string, object>
{
{ "dataTransfer", dataTransfer }
});

ElementHandle.EvalOnSelectorAsync(selector, expression, arg)

Added in: v1.9
  • selector <string> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • expression <string> JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If it looks like a function declaration, it is interpreted as a function. Otherwise, evaluated as an expression.#
  • arg <EvaluationArgument?> Optional argument to pass to expression.#
  • returns: <[object]>#

Returns the return value of expression.

The method finds an element matching the specified selector in the ElementHandles subtree and passes it as a first argument to expression. See Working with selectors for more details. If no elements match the selector, the method throws an error.

If expression returns a Promise, then ElementHandle.EvalOnSelectorAsync(selector, expression, arg) would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

var tweetHandle = await page.QuerySelectorAsync(".tweet");
Assert.AreEqual("100", await tweetHandle.EvalOnSelectorAsync(".like", "node => node.innerText"));
Assert.AreEqual("10", await tweetHandle.EvalOnSelectorAsync(".retweets", "node => node.innerText"));

ElementHandle.EvalOnSelectorAllAsync(selector, expression, arg)

Added in: v1.9
  • selector <string> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • expression <string> JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If it looks like a function declaration, it is interpreted as a function. Otherwise, evaluated as an expression.#
  • arg <EvaluationArgument?> Optional argument to pass to expression.#
  • returns: <[object]>#

Returns the return value of expression.

The method finds all elements matching the specified selector in the ElementHandle's subtree and passes an array of matched elements as a first argument to expression. See Working with selectors for more details.

If expression returns a Promise, then ElementHandle.EvalOnSelectorAllAsync(selector, expression, arg) would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

<div class="feed">
<div class="tweet">Hello!</div>
<div class="tweet">Hi!</div>
</div>
var feedHandle = await page.QuerySelectorAsync(".feed");
Assert.AreEqual(new [] { "Hello!", "Hi!" }, await feedHandle.EvalOnSelectorAllAsync<string[]>(".tweet", "nodes => nodes.map(n => n.innerText)"));

ElementHandle.FillAsync(value, options)

Added in: v1.8
  • value <string> Value to set for the <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element.#
  • options <ElementHandleFillOptions?>
    • Force <bool?> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false. Added in: v1.13#
    • NoWaitAfter <bool?> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <void>#

This method waits for actionability checks, focuses the element, fills it and triggers an input event after filling. Note that you can pass an empty string to clear the input field.

If the target element is not an <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element, this method throws an error. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, the control will be filled instead.

To send fine-grained keyboard events, use ElementHandle.TypeAsync(text, options).

ElementHandle.FocusAsync()

Added in: v1.8

Calls focus on the element.

ElementHandle.GetAttributeAsync(name)

Added in: v1.8
  • name <string> Attribute name to get the value for.#
  • returns: <string?>#

Returns element attribute value.

ElementHandle.HoverAsync(options)

Added in: v1.8
  • options <ElementHandleHoverOptions?>
    • Force <bool?> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • Modifiers <IEnumerable?<enum KeyboardModifier { Alt, Control, Meta, Shift }>> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.#
    • Position <Position?> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • Trial <bool?> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it. Added in: v1.11#
  • returns: <void>#

This method hovers over the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  2. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  3. Use Page.Mouse to hover over the center of the element, or the specified position.
  4. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

ElementHandle.InnerHTMLAsync()

Added in: v1.8

Returns the element.innerHTML.

ElementHandle.InnerTextAsync()

Added in: v1.8

Returns the element.innerText.

ElementHandle.InputValueAsync(options)

Added in: v1.13

Returns input.value for the selected <input> or <textarea> or <select> element.

Throws for non-input elements. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, returns the value of the control.

ElementHandle.IsCheckedAsync()

Added in: v1.8

Returns whether the element is checked. Throws if the element is not a checkbox or radio input.

ElementHandle.IsDisabledAsync()

Added in: v1.8

Returns whether the element is disabled, the opposite of enabled.

ElementHandle.IsEditableAsync()

Added in: v1.8

Returns whether the element is editable.

ElementHandle.IsEnabledAsync()

Added in: v1.8

Returns whether the element is enabled.

ElementHandle.IsHiddenAsync()

Added in: v1.8

Returns whether the element is hidden, the opposite of visible.

ElementHandle.IsVisibleAsync()

Added in: v1.8

Returns whether the element is visible.

ElementHandle.OwnerFrameAsync()

Added in: v1.8

Returns the frame containing the given element.

ElementHandle.PressAsync(key, options)

Added in: v1.8
  • key <string> Name of the key to press or a character to generate, such as ArrowLeft or a.#
  • options <ElementHandlePressOptions?>
    • Delay <double?> Time to wait between keydown and keyup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.#
    • NoWaitAfter <bool?> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <void>#

Focuses the element, and then uses Keyboard.DownAsync(key) and Keyboard.UpAsync(key).

key can specify the intended keyboardEvent.key value or a single character to generate the text for. A superset of the key values can be found here. Examples of the keys are:

F1 - F12, Digit0- Digit9, KeyA- KeyZ, Backquote, Minus, Equal, Backslash, Backspace, Tab, Delete, Escape, ArrowDown, End, Enter, Home, Insert, PageDown, PageUp, ArrowRight, ArrowUp, etc.

Following modification shortcuts are also supported: Shift, Control, Alt, Meta, ShiftLeft.

Holding down Shift will type the text that corresponds to the key in the upper case.

If key is a single character, it is case-sensitive, so the values a and A will generate different respective texts.

Shortcuts such as key: "Control+o" or key: "Control+Shift+T" are supported as well. When specified with the modifier, modifier is pressed and being held while the subsequent key is being pressed.

ElementHandle.QuerySelectorAsync(selector)

Added in: v1.9

The method finds an element matching the specified selector in the ElementHandle's subtree. See Working with selectors for more details. If no elements match the selector, returns null.

ElementHandle.QuerySelectorAllAsync(selector)

Added in: v1.9

The method finds all elements matching the specified selector in the ElementHandles subtree. See Working with selectors for more details. If no elements match the selector, returns empty array.

ElementHandle.ScreenshotAsync(options)

Added in: v1.8
  • options <ElementHandleScreenshotOptions?>

    • Animations <enum ScreenshotAnimations { Disabled, Allow }?> When set to "disabled", stops CSS animations, CSS transitions and Web Animations. Animations get different treatment depending on their duration:#

      • finite animations are fast-forwarded to completion, so they'll fire transitionend event.
      • infinite animations are canceled to initial state, and then played over after the screenshot.

      Defaults to "allow" that leaves animations untouched.

    • Caret <enum ScreenshotCaret { Hide, Initial }?> When set to "hide", screenshot will hide text caret. When set to "initial", text caret behavior will not be changed. Defaults to "hide".#

    • Mask <IEnumerable?<Locator>> Specify locators that should be masked when the screenshot is taken. Masked elements will be overlaid with a pink box #FF00FF that completely covers its bounding box.#

    • OmitBackground <bool?> Hides default white background and allows capturing screenshots with transparency. Not applicable to jpeg images. Defaults to false.#

    • Path <string?> The file path to save the image to. The screenshot type will be inferred from file extension. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to the current working directory. If no path is provided, the image won't be saved to the disk.#

    • Quality <int?> The quality of the image, between 0-100. Not applicable to png images.#

    • Scale <enum ScreenshotScale { Css, Device }?> When set to "css", screenshot will have a single pixel per each css pixel on the page. For high-dpi devices, this will keep screenshots small. Using "device" option will produce a single pixel per each device pixel, so screenhots of high-dpi devices will be twice as large or even larger.#

      Defaults to "device".

    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#

    • Type <enum ScreenshotType { Png, Jpeg }?> Specify screenshot type, defaults to png.#

  • returns: <byte[]>#

This method captures a screenshot of the page, clipped to the size and position of this particular element. If the element is covered by other elements, it will not be actually visible on the screenshot. If the element is a scrollable container, only the currently scrolled content will be visible on the screenshot.

This method waits for the actionability checks, then scrolls element into view before taking a screenshot. If the element is detached from DOM, the method throws an error.

Returns the buffer with the captured screenshot.

ElementHandle.ScrollIntoViewIfNeededAsync(options)

Added in: v1.8

This method waits for actionability checks, then tries to scroll element into view, unless it is completely visible as defined by IntersectionObserver's ratio.

Throws when elementHandle does not point to an element connected to a Document or a ShadowRoot.

ElementHandle.SelectOptionAsync(values, options)

Added in: v1.8
  • values <string?|ElementHandle?|IEnumerable?<string>|SelectOption|IEnumerable?<ElementHandle>|IEnumerable?<SelectOption>> Options to select. If the <select> has the multiple attribute, all matching options are selected, otherwise only the first option matching one of the passed options is selected. String values are equivalent to {value:'string'}. Option is considered matching if all specified properties match.#
    • Value <string?> Matches by option.value. Optional.
    • Label <string?> Matches by option.label. Optional.
    • Index <int?> Matches by the index. Optional.
  • options <ElementHandleSelectOptionOptions?>
    • Force <bool?> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false. Added in: v1.13#
    • NoWaitAfter <bool?> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <IEnumerable<string>>#

This method waits for actionability checks, waits until all specified options are present in the <select> element and selects these options.

If the target element is not a <select> element, this method throws an error. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, the control will be used instead.

Returns the array of option values that have been successfully selected.

Triggers a change and input event once all the provided options have been selected.

// single selection matching the value
await handle.SelectOptionAsync(new[] { "blue" });
// single selection matching the label
await handle.SelectOptionAsync(new[] { new SelectOptionValue() { Label = "blue" } });
// multiple selection
await handle.SelectOptionAsync(new[] { "red", "green", "blue" });
// multiple selection for blue, red and second option
await handle.SelectOptionAsync(new[] {
new SelectOptionValue() { Label = "blue" },
new SelectOptionValue() { Index = 2 },
new SelectOptionValue() { Value = "red" }});

ElementHandle.SelectTextAsync(options)

Added in: v1.8

This method waits for actionability checks, then focuses the element and selects all its text content.

If the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, focuses and selects text in the control instead.

ElementHandle.SetCheckedAsync(checked, options)

Added in: v1.15
  • checkedState <bool> Whether to check or uncheck the checkbox.#
  • options <ElementHandleSetCheckedOptions?>
    • Force <bool?> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • NoWaitAfter <bool?> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • Position <Position?> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • Trial <bool?> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.#
  • returns: <void>#

This method checks or unchecks an element by performing the following steps:

  1. Ensure that element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method throws.
  2. If the element already has the right checked state, this method returns immediately.
  3. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  4. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  5. Use Page.Mouse to click in the center of the element.
  6. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  7. Ensure that the element is now checked or unchecked. If not, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

ElementHandle.SetInputFilesAsync(files, options)

Added in: v1.8
  • files <string|IEnumerable<string>|FilePayload|IEnumerable<FilePayload>>#
  • options <ElementHandleSetInputFilesOptions?>
    • NoWaitAfter <bool?> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <void>#

Sets the value of the file input to these file paths or files. If some of the filePaths are relative paths, then they are resolved relative to the current working directory. For empty array, clears the selected files.

This method expects ElementHandle to point to an input element. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, targets the control instead.

ElementHandle.TapAsync(options)

Added in: v1.8
  • options <ElementHandleTapOptions?>
    • Force <bool?> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • Modifiers <IEnumerable?<enum KeyboardModifier { Alt, Control, Meta, Shift }>> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.#
    • NoWaitAfter <bool?> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • Position <Position?> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • Trial <bool?> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it. Added in: v1.11#
  • returns: <void>#

This method taps the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  2. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  3. Use Page.Touchscreen to tap the center of the element, or the specified position.
  4. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

note

elementHandle.tap() requires that the hasTouch option of the browser context be set to true.

ElementHandle.TextContentAsync()

Added in: v1.8

Returns the node.textContent.

ElementHandle.TypeAsync(text, options)

Added in: v1.8
  • text <string> A text to type into a focused element.#
  • options <ElementHandleTypeOptions?>
    • Delay <double?> Time to wait between key presses in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.#
    • NoWaitAfter <bool?> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <void>#

Focuses the element, and then sends a keydown, keypress/input, and keyup event for each character in the text.

To press a special key, like Control or ArrowDown, use ElementHandle.PressAsync(key, options).

await elementHandle.TypeAsync("Hello"); // Types instantly
await elementHandle.TypeAsync("World", new() { Delay = 100 }); // Types slower, like a user

An example of typing into a text field and then submitting the form:

var elementHandle = await page.QuerySelectorAsync("input");
await elementHandle.TypeAsync("some text");
await elementHandle.PressAsync("Enter");

ElementHandle.UncheckAsync(options)

Added in: v1.8
  • options <ElementHandleUncheckOptions?>
    • Force <bool?> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.#
    • NoWaitAfter <bool?> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.#
    • Position <Position?> A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element. Added in: v1.11#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
    • Trial <bool?> When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it. Added in: v1.11#
  • returns: <void>#

This method checks the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Ensure that element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method throws. If the element is already unchecked, this method returns immediately.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use Page.Mouse to click in the center of the element.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  6. Ensure that the element is now unchecked. If not, this method throws.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

ElementHandle.WaitForElementStateAsync(state, options)

Added in: v1.8
  • state <enum ElementState { Visible, Hidden, Stable, Enabled, Disabled, Editable }> A state to wait for, see below for more details.#
  • options <ElementHandleWaitForElementStateOptions?>
  • returns: <void>#

Returns when the element satisfies the state.

Depending on the state parameter, this method waits for one of the actionability checks to pass. This method throws when the element is detached while waiting, unless waiting for the "hidden" state.

  • "visible" Wait until the element is visible.
  • "hidden" Wait until the element is not visible or not attached. Note that waiting for hidden does not throw when the element detaches.
  • "stable" Wait until the element is both visible and stable.
  • "enabled" Wait until the element is enabled.
  • "disabled" Wait until the element is not enabled.
  • "editable" Wait until the element is editable.

If the element does not satisfy the condition for the timeout milliseconds, this method will throw.

ElementHandle.WaitForSelectorAsync(selector, options)

Added in: v1.8
  • selector <string> A selector to query for. See working with selectors for more details.#
  • options <ElementHandleWaitForSelectorOptions?>
    • State <enum WaitForSelectorState { Attached, Detached, Visible, Hidden }?> Defaults to 'visible'. Can be either:#
      • 'attached' - wait for element to be present in DOM.
      • 'detached' - wait for element to not be present in DOM.
      • 'visible' - wait for element to have non-empty bounding box and no visibility:hidden. Note that element without any content or with display:none has an empty bounding box and is not considered visible.
      • 'hidden' - wait for element to be either detached from DOM, or have an empty bounding box or visibility:hidden. This is opposite to the 'visible' option.
    • Strict <bool?> When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception. Added in: v1.15#
    • Timeout <double?> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) or Page.SetDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.#
  • returns: <ElementHandle?>#

Returns element specified by selector when it satisfies state option. Returns null if waiting for hidden or detached.

Wait for the selector relative to the element handle to satisfy state option (either appear/disappear from dom, or become visible/hidden). If at the moment of calling the method selector already satisfies the condition, the method will return immediately. If the selector doesn't satisfy the condition for the timeout milliseconds, the function will throw.

await page.SetContentAsync("<div><span></span></div>");
var div = await page.QuerySelectorAsync("div");
// Waiting for the "span" selector relative to the div.
var span = await page.WaitForSelectorAsync("span", WaitForSelectorState.Attached);
note

This method does not work across navigations, use Page.WaitForSelectorAsync(selector, options) instead.