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Migrating from Protractor

Migration Principles

Cheat Sheet

ProtractorPlaywright Test
element(by.buttonText('...'))page.locator('button, input[type="button"], input[type="submit"] >> text="..."')
element(by.cssContainingText('..1..', '..2..'))page.locator('..1.. >> text=..2..')
browser.get(url)await page.goto(url)



describe('angularjs homepage todo list', function() {
it('should add a todo', function() {

element(by.model('todoList.todoText')).sendKeys('first test');

const todoList = element.all(by.repeater('todo in todoList.todos'));
expect(todoList.get(2).getText()).toEqual('first test');

// You wrote your first test, cross it off the list
const completedAmount = element.all(by.css('.done-true'));

Line-by-line migration to Playwright Test:

const { test, expect } = require('@playwright/test'); // 1

test.describe('angularjs homepage todo list', () => {
test('should add a todo', async ({ page }) => { // 2, 3
await page.goto(''); // 4

await page.locator('[ng-model="todoList.todoText"]').fill('first test');
await page.locator('[value="add"]').click();

const todoList = page.locator('[ng-repeat="todo in todoList.todos"]'); // 5
await expect(todoList).toHaveCount(3);
await expect(todoList.nth(2)).toHaveText('first test', {
useInnerText: true,

// You wrote your first test, cross it off the list
await todoList.nth(2).getByRole('textbox').click();
const completedAmount = page.locator('.done-true');
await expect(completedAmount).toHaveCount(2);

Migration highlights (see inline comments in the Playwright Test code snippet):

  1. Each Playwright Test file has explicit import of the test and expect functions
  2. Test function is marked with async
  3. Playwright Test is given a page as one of its parameters. This is one of the many useful fixtures in Playwright Test.
  4. Almost all Playwright calls are prefixed with await
  5. Locator creation with page.locator() is one of the few methods that is sync.

Polyfilling waitForAngular

Playwright Test has built-in auto-waiting that makes protractor's waitForAngular unneeded in general case.

However, it might come handy in some edge cases. Here's how to polyfill waitForAngular function in Playwright Test:

  1. Make sure you have protractor installed in your package.json

  2. Polyfill function

    async function waitForAngular(page) {
    const clientSideScripts = require('protractor/built/clientsidescripts.js');

    async function executeScriptAsync(page, script, ...scriptArgs) {
    await page.evaluate(`
    new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
    const callback = (errMessage) => {
    if (errMessage)
    reject(new Error(errMessage));
    (function() {${script}}).apply(null, [...${JSON.stringify(scriptArgs)}, callback]);

    await executeScriptAsync(page, clientSideScripts.waitForAngular, '');

    If you don't want to keep a version protractor around, you can also use this simpler approach using this function (only works for Angular 2+):

    async function waitForAngular(page) {
    await page.evaluate(async () => {
    // @ts-expect-error
    if (window.getAllAngularTestabilities) {
    // @ts-expect-error
    await Promise.all(window.getAllAngularTestabilities().map(whenStable));
    // @ts-expect-error
    async function whenStable(testability) {
    return new Promise(res => testability.whenStable(res));
  3. Polyfill usage

    const page = await context.newPage();
    await page.goto('');
    await waitForAngular(page);

Playwright Test Super Powers

Once you're on Playwright Test, you get a lot!

  • Full zero-configuration TypeScript support
  • Run tests across all web engines (Chrome, Firefox, Safari) on any popular operating system (Windows, macOS, Ubuntu)
  • Full support for multiple origins, (i)frames, tabs and contexts
  • Run tests in parallel across multiple browsers
  • Built-in test artifact collection

You also get all these ✨ awesome tools ✨ that come bundled with Playwright Test:

Further Reading

Learn more about Playwright Test runner: