Skip to main content

Page Object Models

Large test suites can be structured to optimize ease of authoring and maintenance. Page object models are one such approach to structure your test suite.

A page object represents a part of your web application. An e-commerce web application might have a home page, a listings page and a checkout page. Each of them can be represented by page object models.

Page objects simplify authoring by creating a higher-level API which suits your application and simplify maintenance by capturing element selectors in one place and create reusable code to avoid repetition.


We will create a PlaywrightDevPage helper class to encapsulate common operations on the page. Internally, it will use the page object.

// playwright-dev-page.ts
import { expect, Locator, Page } from '@playwright/test';

export class PlaywrightDevPage {
readonly page: Page;
readonly getStartedLink: Locator;
readonly gettingStartedHeader: Locator;
readonly pomLink: Locator;
readonly tocList: Locator;

constructor(page: Page) { = page;
this.getStartedLink = page.locator('a', { hasText: 'Get started' });
this.gettingStartedHeader = page.locator('h1', { hasText: 'Installation' });
this.pomLink = page.locator('li', { hasText: 'Guides' }).locator('a', { hasText: 'Page Object Model' });
this.tocList = page.locator('article div.markdown ul > li > a');

async goto() {

async getStarted() {
await this.getStartedLink.first().click();
await expect(this.gettingStartedHeader).toBeVisible();

async pageObjectModel() {
await this.getStarted();

Now we can use the PlaywrightDevPage class in our tests.

// example.spec.ts
import { test, expect } from '@playwright/test';
import { PlaywrightDevPage } from './playwright-dev-page';

test('getting started should contain table of contents', async ({ page }) => {
const playwrightDev = new PlaywrightDevPage(page);
await playwrightDev.goto();
await playwrightDev.getStarted();
await expect(playwrightDev.tocList).toHaveText([
`How to install Playwright`,
`What's Installed`,
`How to run the example test`,
`How to open the HTML test report`,
`Write tests using web first assertions, page fixtures and locators`,
`Run single test, multiple tests, headed mode`,
`Generate tests with Codegen`,
`See a trace of your tests`

test('should show Page Object Model article', async ({ page }) => {
const playwrightDev = new PlaywrightDevPage(page);
await playwrightDev.goto();
await playwrightDev.pageObjectModel();
await expect(page.locator('article')).toContainText('Page Object Model is a common pattern');