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Continuous Integration

Introduction

Playwright tests can be executed in CI environments. We have created sample configurations for common CI providers.

3 steps to get your tests running on CI:

  1. Ensure CI agent can run browsers: Use our Docker image in Linux agents or install your dependencies using the CLI.

  2. Install Playwright:

    # Install NPM packages
    npm ci

    # Install Playwright browsers and dependencies
    npx playwright install --with-deps
  3. Run your tests:

    npx playwright test

Workers

We recommend setting workers to "1" in CI environments to prioritize stability and reproducibility. Running tests sequentially ensures each test gets the full system resources, avoiding potential conflicts. However, if you have a powerful self-hosted CI system, you may enable parallel tests. For wider parallelization, consider sharding - distributing tests across multiple CI jobs.

playwright.config.ts
import { defineConfig, devices } from '@playwright/test';

export default defineConfig({
// Opt out of parallel tests on CI.
workers: process.env.CI ? 1 : undefined,
});

CI configurations

The Command line tools can be used to install all operating system dependencies on GitHub Actions.

GitHub Actions

Check out our GitHub Actions guide for more information on how to run your tests on GitHub.

Docker

We have a pre-built Docker image which can either be used directly, or as a reference to update your existing Docker definitions.

Suggested configuration

  1. Using --ipc=host is also recommended when using Chromium. Without it Chromium can run out of memory and crash. Learn more about this option in Docker docs.
  2. Seeing other weird errors when launching Chromium? Try running your container with docker run --cap-add=SYS_ADMIN when developing locally.
  3. Using --init Docker flag or dumb-init is recommended to avoid special treatment for processes with PID=1. This is a common reason for zombie processes.

Azure Pipelines

For Windows or macOS agents, no additional configuration required, just install Playwright and run your tests.

For Linux agents, you can use our Docker container with Azure Pipelines support running containerized jobs. Alternatively, you can use Command line tools to install all necessary dependencies.

For running the Playwright tests use this pipeline task:

trigger:
- main

pool:
vmImage: ubuntu-latest

steps:
- task: NodeTool@0
inputs:
versionSpec: '18'
displayName: 'Install Node.js'
- script: npm ci
displayName: 'npm ci'
- script: npx playwright install --with-deps
displayName: 'Install Playwright browsers'
- script: npx playwright test
displayName: 'Run Playwright tests'
env:
CI: 'true'

Uploading playwright-report folder with Azure Pipelines

This will make the pipeline run fail if any of the playwright tests fails. If you also want to integrate the test results with Azure DevOps, use the task PublishTestResults task like so:

trigger:
- main

pool:
vmImage: ubuntu-latest

steps:
- task: NodeTool@0
inputs:
versionSpec: '18'
displayName: 'Install Node.js'

- script: npm ci
displayName: 'npm ci'
- script: npx playwright install --with-deps
displayName: 'Install Playwright browsers'
- script: npx playwright test
displayName: 'Run Playwright tests'
env:
CI: 'true'
- task: PublishTestResults@2
displayName: 'Publish test results'
inputs:
searchFolder: 'test-results'
testResultsFormat: 'JUnit'
testResultsFiles: 'e2e-junit-results.xml'
mergeTestResults: true
failTaskOnFailedTests: true
testRunTitle: 'My End-To-End Tests'
condition: succeededOrFailed()
- task: PublishPipelineArtifact@1
inputs:
targetPath: playwright-report
artifact: playwright-report
publishLocation: 'pipeline'
condition: succeededOrFailed()

Note: The JUnit reporter needs to be configured accordingly via

import { defineConfig } from '@playwright/test';

export default defineConfig({
reporter: [['junit', { outputFile: 'test-results/e2e-junit-results.xml' }]],
});

in playwright.config.ts.

Azure Pipelines (sharded)

trigger:
- main

pool:
vmImage: ubuntu-latest

strategy:
matrix:
chromium-1:
project: chromium
shard: 1/3
chromium-2:
project: chromium
shard: 2/3
chromium-3:
project: chromium
shard: 3/3
firefox-1:
project: firefox
shard: 1/3
firefox-2:
project: firefox
shard: 2/3
firefox-3:
project: firefox
shard: 3/3
webkit-1:
project: webkit
shard: 1/3
webkit-2:
project: webkit
shard: 2/3
webkit-3:
project: webkit
shard: 3/3
steps:
- task: NodeTool@0
inputs:
versionSpec: '18'
displayName: 'Install Node.js'

- script: npm ci
displayName: 'npm ci'
- script: npx playwright install --with-deps
displayName: 'Install Playwright browsers'
- script: npx playwright test --project=$(project) --shard=$(shard)
displayName: 'Run Playwright tests'
env:
CI: 'true'

Azure Pipelines (containerized)

trigger:
- main

pool:
vmImage: ubuntu-latest
container: mcr.microsoft.com/playwright:v1.44.1-jammy

steps:
- task: NodeTool@0
inputs:
versionSpec: '18'
displayName: 'Install Node.js'

- script: npm ci
displayName: 'npm ci'
- script: npx playwright test
displayName: 'Run Playwright tests'
env:
CI: 'true'

CircleCI

Running Playwright on CircleCI is very similar to running on GitHub Actions. In order to specify the pre-built Playwright Docker image, simply modify the agent definition with docker: in your config like so:

executors:
pw-jammy-development:
docker:
- image: mcr.microsoft.com/playwright:v1.44.1-jammy

Note: When using the docker agent definition, you are specifying the resource class of where playwright runs to the 'medium' tier here. The default behavior of Playwright is to set the number of workers to the detected core count (2 in the case of the medium tier). Overriding the number of workers to greater than this number will cause unnecessary timeouts and failures.

Sharding in CircleCI

Sharding in CircleCI is indexed with 0 which means that you will need to override the default parallelism ENV VARS. The following example demonstrates how to run Playwright with a CircleCI Parallelism of 4 by adding 1 to the CIRCLE_NODE_INDEX to pass into the --shard cli arg.

  playwright-job-name:
executor: pw-jammy-development
parallelism: 4
steps:
- run: SHARD="$((${CIRCLE_NODE_INDEX}+1))"; npx playwright test -- --shard=${SHARD}/${CIRCLE_NODE_TOTAL}

Jenkins

Jenkins supports Docker agents for pipelines. Use the Playwright Docker image to run tests on Jenkins.

pipeline {
agent { docker { image 'mcr.microsoft.com/playwright:v1.44.1-jammy' } }
stages {
stage('e2e-tests') {
steps {
sh 'npm ci'
sh 'npx playwright test'
}
}
}
}

Bitbucket Pipelines

Bitbucket Pipelines can use public Docker images as build environments. To run Playwright tests on Bitbucket, use our public Docker image (see Dockerfile).

image: mcr.microsoft.com/playwright:v1.44.1-jammy

GitLab CI

To run Playwright tests on GitLab, use our public Docker image (see Dockerfile).

stages:
- test

tests:
stage: test
image: mcr.microsoft.com/playwright:v1.44.1-jammy
script:
...

Sharding

GitLab CI supports sharding tests between multiple jobs using the parallel keyword. The test job will be split into multiple smaller jobs that run in parallel. Parallel jobs are named sequentially from job_name 1/N to job_name N/N.

stages:
- test

tests:
stage: test
image: mcr.microsoft.com/playwright:v1.44.1-jammy
parallel: 7
script:
- npm ci
- npx playwright test --shard=$CI_NODE_INDEX/$CI_NODE_TOTAL

GitLab CI also supports sharding tests between multiple jobs using the parallel:matrix option. The test job will run multiple times in parallel in a single pipeline, but with different variable values for each instance of the job. In the example below, we have 2 PROJECT values and 10 SHARD values, resulting in a total of 20 jobs to be run.

stages:
- test

tests:
stage: test
image: mcr.microsoft.com/playwright:v1.44.1-jammy
parallel:
matrix:
- PROJECT: ['chromium', 'webkit']
SHARD: ['1/10', '2/10', '3/10', '4/10', '5/10', '6/10', '7/10', '8/10', '9/10', '10/10']
script:
- npm ci
- npx playwright test --project=$PROJECT --shard=$SHARD

Google Cloud Build

To run Playwright tests on Google Cloud Build, use our public Docker image (see Dockerfile).

steps:
- name: mcr.microsoft.com/playwright:v1.44.1-jammy
script:
...
env:
- 'CI=true'

Caching browsers

Caching browser binaries is not recommended, since the amount of time it takes to restore the cache is comparable to the time it takes to download the binaries. Especially under Linux, operating system dependencies need to be installed, which are not cacheable.

If you still want to cache the browser binaries between CI runs, cache these directories in your CI configuration, against a hash of the Playwright version.

Debugging browser launches

Playwright supports the DEBUG environment variable to output debug logs during execution. Setting it to pw:browser is helpful while debugging Error: Failed to launch browser errors.

DEBUG=pw:browser npx playwright test

Running headed

By default, Playwright launches browsers in headless mode. This can be changed by passing a flag when the browser is launched.

// Works across chromium, firefox and webkit
const { chromium } = require('playwright');
const browser = await chromium.launch({ headless: false });

On Linux agents, headed execution requires Xvfb to be installed. Our Docker image and GitHub Action have Xvfb pre-installed. To run browsers in headed mode with Xvfb, add xvfb-run before the actual command.

xvfb-run node index.js