Version: 1.6.0

ElementHandle

ElementHandle represents an in-page DOM element. ElementHandles can be created with the page.$ method.

const { chromium } = require('playwright'); // Or 'firefox' or 'webkit'.
(async () => {
const browser = await chromium.launch();
const page = await browser.newPage();
await page.goto('https://example.com');
const hrefElement = await page.$('a');
await hrefElement.click();
// ...
})();

ElementHandle prevents DOM element from garbage collection unless the handle is disposed. ElementHandles are auto-disposed when their origin frame gets navigated.

ElementHandle instances can be used as an argument in page.$eval() and page.evaluate() methods.

elementHandle.$(selector)#

The method finds an element matching the specified selector in the ElementHandle's subtree. See Working with selectors for more details. If no elements match the selector, the return value resolves to null.

elementHandle.$$(selector)#

The method finds all elements matching the specified selector in the ElementHandles subtree. See Working with selectors for more details. If no elements match the selector, the return value resolves to [].

elementHandle.$eval(selector, pageFunction[, arg])#

The method finds an element matching the specified selector in the ElementHandles subtree and passes it as a first argument to pageFunction. See Working with selectors for more details. If no elements match the selector, the method throws an error.

If pageFunction returns a Promise, then frame.$eval would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

const tweetHandle = await page.$('.tweet');
expect(await tweetHandle.$eval('.like', node => node.innerText)).toBe('100');
expect(await tweetHandle.$eval('.retweets', node => node.innerText)).toBe('10');

elementHandle.$$eval(selector, pageFunction[, arg])#

The method finds all elements matching the specified selector in the ElementHandle's subtree and passes an array of matched elements as a first argument to pageFunction. See Working with selectors for more details.

If pageFunction returns a Promise, then frame.$$eval would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

<div class="feed">
<div class="tweet">Hello!</div>
<div class="tweet">Hi!</div>
</div>
const feedHandle = await page.$('.feed');
expect(await feedHandle.$$eval('.tweet', nodes => nodes.map(n => n.innerText))).toEqual(['Hello!', 'Hi!']);

elementHandle.boundingBox()#

  • returns: <Promise<null|Object>>
    • x <number> the x coordinate of the element in pixels.
    • y <number> the y coordinate of the element in pixels.
    • width <number> the width of the element in pixels.
    • height <number> the height of the element in pixels.

This method returns the bounding box of the element (relative to the main frame), or null if the element is not visible.

elementHandle.check([options])#

  • options <Object>
    • force <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when the element is successfully checked.

This method checks the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Ensure that element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method rejects. If the element is already checked, this method returns immediately.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use page.mouse to click in the center of the element.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  6. Ensure that the element is now checked. If not, this method rejects.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method rejects.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method rejects with a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

elementHandle.click([options])#

  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • clickCount <number> defaults to 1. See UIEvent.detail.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • position <Object> A point to click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • force <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when the element is successfully clicked.

This method clicks the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  2. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  3. Use page.mouse to click in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  4. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method rejects.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method rejects with a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

elementHandle.contentFrame()#

  • returns: <Promise<null|Frame>> Resolves to the content frame for element handles referencing iframe nodes, or null otherwise

elementHandle.dblclick([options])#

  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • position <Object> A point to double click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, double clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the double click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • force <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when the element is successfully double clicked.

This method double clicks the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  2. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  3. Use page.mouse to double click in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  4. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set. Note that if the first click of the dblclick() triggers a navigation event, this method will reject.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method rejects.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method rejects with a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

NOTE elementHandle.dblclick() dispatches two click events and a single dblclick event.

elementHandle.dispatchEvent(type[, eventInit])#

The snippet below dispatches the click event on the element. Regardless of the visibility state of the elment, click is dispatched. This is equivalend to calling element.click().

await elementHandle.dispatchEvent('click');

Under the hood, it creates an instance of an event based on the given type, initializes it with eventInit properties and dispatches it on the element. Events are composed, cancelable and bubble by default.

Since eventInit is event-specific, please refer to the events documentation for the lists of initial properties:

// Note you can only create DataTransfer in Chromium and Firefox
const dataTransfer = await page.evaluateHandle(() => new DataTransfer());
await elementHandle.dispatchEvent('dragstart', { dataTransfer });

elementHandle.fill(value[, options])#

  • value <string> Value to set for the <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element.
  • options <Object>
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise>

This method waits for actionability checks, focuses the element, fills it and triggers an input event after filling. If the element is not an <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element, this method throws an error. Note that you can pass an empty string to clear the input field.

elementHandle.focus()#

Calls focus on the element.

elementHandle.getAttribute(name)#

Returns element attribute value.

elementHandle.hover([options])#

  • options <Object>
    • position <Object> A point to hover relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, hovers over some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the hover, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • force <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when the element is successfully hovered.

This method hovers over the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  2. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  3. Use page.mouse to hover over the center of the element, or the specified position.
  4. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method rejects.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method rejects with a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

elementHandle.innerHTML()#

elementHandle.innerText()#

elementHandle.ownerFrame()#

elementHandle.press(key[, options])#

  • key <string> Name of the key to press or a character to generate, such as ArrowLeft or a.
  • options <Object>
    • delay <number> Time to wait between keydown and keyup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise>

Focuses the element, and then uses keyboard.down and keyboard.up.

key can specify the intended keyboardEvent.key value or a single character to generate the text for. A superset of the key values can be found here. Examples of the keys are:

F1 - F12, Digit0- Digit9, KeyA- KeyZ, Backquote, Minus, Equal, Backslash, Backspace, Tab, Delete, Escape, ArrowDown, End, Enter, Home, Insert, PageDown, PageUp, ArrowRight, ArrowUp, etc.

Following modification shortcuts are also suported: Shift, Control, Alt, Meta, ShiftLeft.

Holding down Shift will type the text that corresponds to the key in the upper case.

If key is a single character, it is case-sensitive, so the values a and A will generate different respective texts.

Shortcuts such as key: "Control+o" or key: "Control+Shift+T" are supported as well. When speficied with the modifier, modifier is pressed and being held while the subsequent key is being pressed.

elementHandle.screenshot([options])#

  • options <Object> Screenshot options.
    • path <string> The file path to save the image to. The screenshot type will be inferred from file extension. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory. If no path is provided, the image won't be saved to the disk.
    • type <"png"|"jpeg"> Specify screenshot type, defaults to png.
    • quality <number> The quality of the image, between 0-100. Not applicable to png images.
    • omitBackground <boolean> Hides default white background and allows capturing screenshots with transparency. Not applicable to jpeg images. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise<Buffer>> Promise which resolves to buffer with the captured screenshot.

This method waits for the actionability checks, then scrolls element into view before taking a screenshot. If the element is detached from DOM, the method throws an error.

elementHandle.scrollIntoViewIfNeeded([options])#

This method waits for actionability checks, then tries to scroll element into view, unless it is completely visible as defined by IntersectionObserver's ratio.

Throws when elementHandle does not point to an element connected to a Document or a ShadowRoot.

elementHandle.selectOption(values[, options])#

  • values <null|string|ElementHandle|Array<string>|Object|Array<ElementHandle>|Array<Object>> Options to select. If the <select> has the multiple attribute, all matching options are selected, otherwise only the first option matching one of the passed options is selected. String values are equivalent to {value:'string'}. Option is considered matching if all specified properties match.
    • value <string> Matches by option.value.
    • label <string> Matches by option.label.
    • index <number> Matches by the index.
  • options <Object>
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise<Array<string>>> An array of option values that have been successfully selected.

Triggers a change and input event once all the provided options have been selected. If element is not a <select> element, the method throws an error.

// single selection matching the value
handle.selectOption('blue');
// single selection matching both the value and the label
handle.selectOption({ label: 'Blue' });
// multiple selection
handle.selectOption('red', 'green', 'blue');
// multiple selection for blue, red and second option
handle.selectOption({ value: 'blue' }, { index: 2 }, 'red');

elementHandle.selectText([options])#

This method waits for actionability checks, then focuses the element and selects all its text content.

elementHandle.setInputFiles(files[, options])#

This method expects elementHandle to point to an input element.

Sets the value of the file input to these file paths or files. If some of the filePaths are relative paths, then they are resolved relative to the current working directory. For empty array, clears the selected files.

elementHandle.tap([options])#

  • options <Object>
    • position <Object> A point to tap relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, taps some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the tap, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • force <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when the element is successfully tapped.

This method taps the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  2. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  3. Use page.touchscreen to tap in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  4. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method rejects.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method rejects with a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

NOTE elementHandle.tap() requires that the hasTouch option of the browser context be set to true.

elementHandle.textContent()#

elementHandle.toString()#

elementHandle.type(text[, options])#

  • text <string> A text to type into a focused element.
  • options <Object>
    • delay <number> Time to wait between key presses in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise>

Focuses the element, and then sends a keydown, keypress/input, and keyup event for each character in the text.

To press a special key, like Control or ArrowDown, use elementHandle.press.

await elementHandle.type('Hello'); // Types instantly
await elementHandle.type('World', {delay: 100}); // Types slower, like a user

An example of typing into a text field and then submitting the form:

const elementHandle = await page.$('input');
await elementHandle.type('some text');
await elementHandle.press('Enter');

elementHandle.uncheck([options])#

  • options <Object>
    • force <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when the element is successfully unchecked.

This method checks the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Ensure that element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method rejects. If the element is already unchecked, this method returns immediately.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use page.mouse to click in the center of the element.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  6. Ensure that the element is now unchecked. If not, this method rejects.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method rejects.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method rejects with a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

elementHandle.waitForElementState(state[, options])#

Depending on the state parameter, this method waits for one of the actionability checks to pass. This method throws when the element is detached while waiting, unless waiting for the "hidden" state.

  • "visible" Wait until the element is visible.
  • "hidden" Wait until the element is not visible or not attached. Note that waiting for hidden does not throw when the element detaches.
  • "stable" Wait until the element is both visible and stable.
  • "enabled" Wait until the element is enabled.
  • "disabled" Wait until the element is not enabled.

If the element does not satisfy the condition for the timeout milliseconds, this method will throw.

elementHandle.waitForSelector(selector[, options])#

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to wait for, relative to the element handle. See working with selectors for more details.
  • options <Object>
    • state <"attached"|"detached"|"visible"|"hidden"> Defaults to 'visible'. Can be either:
      • 'attached' - wait for element to be present in DOM.
      • 'detached' - wait for element to not be present in DOM.
      • 'visible' - wait for element to have non-empty bounding box and no visibility:hidden. Note that element without any content or with display:none has an empty bounding box and is not considered visible.
      • 'hidden' - wait for element to be either detached from DOM, or have an empty bounding box or visibility:hidden. This is opposite to the 'visible' option.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise<null|ElementHandle>> Promise that resolves when element specified by selector satisfies state option. Resolves to null if waiting for hidden or detached.

Wait for the selector relative to the element handle to satisfy state option (either appear/disappear from dom, or become visible/hidden). If at the moment of calling the method selector already satisfies the condition, the method will return immediately. If the selector doesn't satisfy the condition for the timeout milliseconds, the function will throw.

await page.setContent(`<div><span></span></div>`);
const div = await page.$('div');
// Waiting for the 'span' selector relative to the div.
const span = await div.waitForSelector('span', { state: 'attached' });

NOTE This method does not work across navigations, use page.waitForSelector(selector[, options]) instead.