Version: 1.4.0

Page

Page provides methods to interact with a single tab in a Browser, or an extension background page in Chromium. One Browser instance might have multiple Page instances.

This example creates a page, navigates it to a URL, and then saves a screenshot:

const { webkit } = require('playwright'); // Or 'chromium' or 'firefox'.
(async () => {
const browser = await webkit.launch();
const context = await browser.newContext();
const page = await context.newPage();
await page.goto('https://example.com');
await page.screenshot({path: 'screenshot.png'});
await browser.close();
})();

The Page class emits various events (described below) which can be handled using any of Node's native EventEmitter methods, such as on, once or removeListener.

This example logs a message for a single page load event:

page.once('load', () => console.log('Page loaded!'));

To unsubscribe from events use the removeListener method:

function logRequest(interceptedRequest) {
console.log('A request was made:', interceptedRequest.url());
}
page.on('request', logRequest);
// Sometime later...
page.removeListener('request', logRequest);

event: '_videostarted'#

experimental Emitted when video recording has started for this page. The event will fire only if _recordVideos option is configured on the parent context.

event: 'close'#

Emitted when the page closes.

event: 'console'#

Emitted when JavaScript within the page calls one of console API methods, e.g. console.log or console.dir. Also emitted if the page throws an error or a warning.

The arguments passed into console.log appear as arguments on the event handler.

An example of handling console event:

page.on('console', msg => {
for (let i = 0; i < msg.args().length; ++i)
console.log(`${i}: ${msg.args()[i]}`);
});
page.evaluate(() => console.log('hello', 5, {foo: 'bar'}));

event: 'crash'#

Emitted when the page crashes. Browser pages might crash if they try to allocate too much memory. When the page crashes, ongoing and subsequent operations will throw.

The most common way to deal with crashes is to catch an exception:

try {
// Crash might happen during a click.
await page.click('button');
// Or while waiting for an event.
await page.waitForEvent('popup');
} catch (e) {
// When the page crashes, exception message contains 'crash'.
}

However, when manually listening to events, it might be useful to avoid stalling when the page crashes. In this case, handling crash event helps:

await new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
page.on('requestfinished', async request => {
if (await someProcessing(request))
resolve(request);
});
page.on('crash', error => reject(error));
});

event: 'dialog'#

Emitted when a JavaScript dialog appears, such as alert, prompt, confirm or beforeunload. Playwright can respond to the dialog via Dialog's accept or dismiss methods.

event: 'domcontentloaded'#

Emitted when the JavaScript DOMContentLoaded event is dispatched.

event: 'download'#

Emitted when attachment download started. User can access basic file operations on downloaded content via the passed Download instance.

NOTE Browser context must be created with the acceptDownloads set to true when user needs access to the downloaded content. If acceptDownloads is not set or set to false, download events are emitted, but the actual download is not performed and user has no access to the downloaded files.

event: 'filechooser'#

Emitted when a file chooser is supposed to appear, such as after clicking the <input type=file>. Playwright can respond to it via setting the input files using fileChooser.setFiles that can be uploaded after that.

page.on('filechooser', async (fileChooser) => {
await fileChooser.setFiles('/tmp/myfile.pdf');
});

event: 'frameattached'#

Emitted when a frame is attached.

event: 'framedetached'#

Emitted when a frame is detached.

event: 'framenavigated'#

Emitted when a frame is navigated to a new url.

event: 'load'#

Emitted when the JavaScript load event is dispatched.

event: 'pageerror'#

  • <Error> The exception message

Emitted when an uncaught exception happens within the page.

event: 'popup'#

  • <Page> Page corresponding to "popup" window

Emitted when the page opens a new tab or window. This event is emitted in addition to the browserContext.on('page'), but only for popups relevant to this page.

The earliest moment that page is available is when it has navigated to the initial url. For example, when opening a popup with window.open('http://example.com'), this event will fire when the network request to "http://example.com" is done and its response has started loading in the popup.

const [popup] = await Promise.all([
page.waitForEvent('popup'),
page.evaluate(() => window.open('https://example.com')),
]);
console.log(await popup.evaluate('location.href'));

NOTE Use page.waitForLoadState([state[, options]]) to wait until the page gets to a particular state (you should not need it in most cases).

event: 'request'#

Emitted when a page issues a request. The request object is read-only. In order to intercept and mutate requests, see page.route() or browserContext.route().

event: 'requestfailed'#

Emitted when a request fails, for example by timing out.

NOTE HTTP Error responses, such as 404 or 503, are still successful responses from HTTP standpoint, so request will complete with 'requestfinished' event and not with 'requestfailed'.

event: 'requestfinished'#

Emitted when a request finishes successfully after downloading the response body. For a successful response, the sequence of events is request, response and requestfinished.

event: 'response'#

Emitted when response status and headers are received for a request. For a successful response, the sequence of events is request, response and requestfinished.

event: 'worker'#

Emitted when a dedicated WebWorker is spawned by the page.

page.$(selector)#

The method finds an element matching the specified selector within the page. If no elements match the selector, the return value resolves to null.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().$(selector).

page.$$(selector)#

The method finds all elements matching the specified selector within the page. If no elements match the selector, the return value resolves to [].

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().$$(selector).

page.$eval(selector, pageFunction[, arg])#

The method finds an element matching the specified selector within the page and passes it as a first argument to pageFunction. If no elements match the selector, the method throws an error.

If pageFunction returns a Promise, then page.$eval would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

const searchValue = await page.$eval('#search', el => el.value);
const preloadHref = await page.$eval('link[rel=preload]', el => el.href);
const html = await page.$eval('.main-container', (e, suffix) => e.outerHTML + suffix, 'hello');

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().$eval(selector, pageFunction).

page.$$eval(selector, pageFunction[, arg])#

The method finds all elements matching the specified selector within the page and passes an array of matched elements as a first argument to pageFunction.

If pageFunction returns a Promise, then page.$$eval would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Examples:

const divsCounts = await page.$$eval('div', (divs, min) => divs.length >= min, 10);

page.accessibility#

page.addInitScript(script[, arg])#

Adds a script which would be evaluated in one of the following scenarios:

  • Whenever the page is navigated.
  • Whenever the child frame is attached or navigated. In this case, the script is evaluated in the context of the newly attached frame.

The script is evaluated after the document was created but before any of its scripts were run. This is useful to amend the JavaScript environment, e.g. to seed Math.random.

An example of overriding Math.random before the page loads:

// preload.js
Math.random = () => 42;
// In your playwright script, assuming the preload.js file is in same folder
const preloadFile = fs.readFileSync('./preload.js', 'utf8');
await page.addInitScript(preloadFile);

NOTE The order of evaluation of multiple scripts installed via browserContext.addInitScript(script[, arg]) and page.addInitScript(script[, arg]) is not defined.

page.addScriptTag(options)#

  • options <Object>
    • url <string> URL of a script to be added.
    • path <string> Path to the JavaScript file to be injected into frame. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory.
    • content <string> Raw JavaScript content to be injected into frame.
    • type <string> Script type. Use 'module' in order to load a Javascript ES6 module. See script for more details.
  • returns: <Promise<ElementHandle>> which resolves to the added tag when the script's onload fires or when the script content was injected into frame.

Adds a <script> tag into the page with the desired url or content.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().addScriptTag(options).

page.addStyleTag(options)#

  • options <Object>
    • url <string> URL of the <link> tag.
    • path <string> Path to the CSS file to be injected into frame. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory.
    • content <string> Raw CSS content to be injected into frame.
  • returns: <Promise<ElementHandle>> which resolves to the added tag when the stylesheet's onload fires or when the CSS content was injected into frame.

Adds a <link rel="stylesheet"> tag into the page with the desired url or a <style type="text/css"> tag with the content.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().addStyleTag(options).

page.bringToFront()#

Brings page to front (activates tab).

page.check(selector, [options])#

  • selector <string> A selector to search for checkbox or radio button to check. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be checked. See working with selectors for more details.
  • options <Object>
    • force <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when the element matching selector is successfully checked.

This method checks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element match matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Ensure that matched element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method rejects. If the element is already checked, this method returns immediately.
  3. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  4. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  5. Use page.mouse to click in the center of the element.
  6. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  7. Ensure that the element is now checked. If not, this method rejects.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method rejects with a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().check(selector[, options]).

page.click(selector[, options])#

  • selector <string> A selector to search for element to click. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be clicked. See working with selectors for more details.
  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • clickCount <number> defaults to 1. See UIEvent.detail.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • position <Object> A point to click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • force <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when the element matching selector is successfully clicked.

This method clicks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element match matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use page.mouse to click in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method rejects with a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().click(selector[, options]).

page.close([options])#

By default, page.close() does not run beforeunload handlers.

NOTE if runBeforeUnload is passed as true, a beforeunload dialog might be summoned and should be handled manually via page's 'dialog' event.

page.content()#

Gets the full HTML contents of the page, including the doctype.

page.context()#

Get the browser context that the page belongs to.

page.coverage#

Browser-specific Coverage implementation, only available for Chromium atm. See ChromiumCoverage for more details.

page.dblclick(selector[, options])#

  • selector <string> A selector to search for element to double click. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be double clicked. See working with selectors for more details.
  • options <Object>
    • button <"left"|"right"|"middle"> Defaults to left.
    • delay <number> Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • position <Object> A point to double click relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, double clicks to some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the double click, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • force <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when the element matching selector is successfully double clicked.

This method double clicks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element match matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use page.mouse to double click in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set. Note that if the first click of the dblclick() triggers a navigation event, this method will reject.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method rejects with a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

NOTE page.dblclick() dispatches two click events and a single dblclick event.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().dblclick(selector[, options]).

page.dispatchEvent(selector, type[, eventInit, options])#

The snippet below dispatches the click event on the element. Regardless of the visibility state of the elment, click is dispatched. This is equivalend to calling element.click().

await page.dispatchEvent('button#submit', 'click');

Under the hood, it creates an instance of an event based on the given type, initializes it with eventInit properties and dispatches it on the element. Events are composed, cancelable and bubble by default.

Since eventInit is event-specific, please refer to the events documentation for the lists of initial properties:

// Note you can only create DataTransfer in Chromium and Firefox
const dataTransfer = await page.evaluateHandle(() => new DataTransfer());
await page.dispatchEvent('#source', 'dragstart', { dataTransfer });

page.emulateMedia(options)#

  • options <Object>
    • media <null|"screen"|"print"> Changes the CSS media type of the page. The only allowed values are 'screen', 'print' and null. Passing null disables CSS media emulation. Omitting media or passing undefined does not change the emulated value.
    • colorScheme <null|"light"|"dark"|"no-preference"> Emulates 'prefers-colors-scheme' media feature, supported values are 'light', 'dark', 'no-preference'. Passing null disables color scheme emulation. Omitting colorScheme or passing undefined does not change the emulated value.
  • returns: <Promise>
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('screen').matches);
// β†’ true
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('print').matches);
// β†’ false
await page.emulateMedia({ media: 'print' });
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('screen').matches);
// β†’ false
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('print').matches);
// β†’ true
await page.emulateMedia({});
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('screen').matches);
// β†’ true
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('print').matches);
// β†’ false
await page.emulateMedia({ colorScheme: 'dark' }] });
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('(prefers-color-scheme: dark)').matches);
// β†’ true
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('(prefers-color-scheme: light)').matches);
// β†’ false
await page.evaluate(() => matchMedia('(prefers-color-scheme: no-preference)').matches);
// β†’ false

page.evaluate(pageFunction[, arg])#

If the function passed to the page.evaluate returns a Promise, then page.evaluate would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

If the function passed to the page.evaluate returns a non-Serializable value, then page.evaluate resolves to undefined. DevTools Protocol also supports transferring some additional values that are not serializable by JSON: -0, NaN, Infinity, -Infinity, and bigint literals.

Passing argument to pageFunction:

const result = await page.evaluate(([x, y]) => {
return Promise.resolve(x * y);
}, [7, 8]);
console.log(result); // prints "56"

A string can also be passed in instead of a function:

console.log(await page.evaluate('1 + 2')); // prints "3"
const x = 10;
console.log(await page.evaluate(`1 + ${x}`)); // prints "11"

ElementHandle instances can be passed as an argument to the page.evaluate:

const bodyHandle = await page.$('body');
const html = await page.evaluate(([body, suffix]) => body.innerHTML + suffix, [bodyHandle, 'hello']);
await bodyHandle.dispose();

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().evaluate(pageFunction[, arg]).

page.evaluateHandle(pageFunction[, arg])#

  • pageFunction <function|string> Function to be evaluated in the page context
  • arg <EvaluationArgument> Optional argument to pass to pageFunction
  • returns: <Promise<JSHandle>> Promise which resolves to the return value of pageFunction as in-page object (JSHandle)

The only difference between page.evaluate and page.evaluateHandle is that page.evaluateHandle returns in-page object (JSHandle).

If the function passed to the page.evaluateHandle returns a Promise, then page.evaluateHandle would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

A string can also be passed in instead of a function:

const aHandle = await page.evaluateHandle('document'); // Handle for the 'document'

JSHandle instances can be passed as an argument to the page.evaluateHandle:

const aHandle = await page.evaluateHandle(() => document.body);
const resultHandle = await page.evaluateHandle(body => body.innerHTML, aHandle);
console.log(await resultHandle.jsonValue());
await resultHandle.dispose();

page.exposeBinding(name, playwrightBinding)#

  • name <string> Name of the function on the window object.
  • playwrightBinding <function> Callback function that will be called in the Playwright's context.
  • returns: <Promise>

The method adds a function called name on the window object of every frame in this page. When called, the function executes playwrightBinding in Node.js and returns a Promise which resolves to the return value of playwrightBinding. If the playwrightBinding returns a Promise, it will be awaited.

The first argument of the playwrightBinding function contains information about the caller: { browserContext: BrowserContext, page: Page, frame: Frame }.

See browserContext.exposeBinding(name, playwrightBinding) for the context-wide version.

NOTE Functions installed via page.exposeBinding survive navigations.

An example of exposing page URL to all frames in a page:

const { webkit } = require('playwright'); // Or 'chromium' or 'firefox'.
(async () => {
const browser = await webkit.launch({ headless: false });
const context = await browser.newContext();
const page = await context.newPage();
await page.exposeBinding('pageURL', ({ page }) => page.url());
await page.setContent(`
<script>
async function onClick() {
document.querySelector('div').textContent = await window.pageURL();
}
</script>
<button onclick="onClick()">Click me</button>
<div></div>
`);
await page.click('button');
})();

page.exposeFunction(name, playwrightFunction)#

  • name <string> Name of the function on the window object
  • playwrightFunction <function> Callback function which will be called in Playwright's context.
  • returns: <Promise>

The method adds a function called name on the window object of every frame in the page. When called, the function executes playwrightFunction in Node.js and returns a Promise which resolves to the return value of playwrightFunction.

If the playwrightFunction returns a Promise, it will be awaited.

See browserContext.exposeFunction(name, playwrightFunction) for context-wide exposed function.

NOTE Functions installed via page.exposeFunction survive navigations.

An example of adding an md5 function to the page:

const { webkit } = require('playwright'); // Or 'chromium' or 'firefox'.
const crypto = require('crypto');
(async () => {
const browser = await webkit.launch({ headless: false });
const page = await browser.newPage();
await page.exposeFunction('md5', text => crypto.createHash('md5').update(text).digest('hex'));
await page.setContent(`
<script>
async function onClick() {
document.querySelector('div').textContent = await window.mdx5('PLAYWRIGHT');
}
</script>
<button onclick="onClick()">Click me</button>
<div></div>
`);
await page.click('button');
})();

An example of adding a window.readfile function to the page:

const { chromium } = require('playwright'); // Or 'firefox' or 'webkit'.
const fs = require('fs');
(async () => {
const browser = await chromium.launch();
const page = await browser.newPage();
page.on('console', msg => console.log(msg.text()));
await page.exposeFunction('readfile', async filePath => {
return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
fs.readFile(filePath, 'utf8', (err, text) => {
if (err)
reject(err);
else
resolve(text);
});
});
});
await page.evaluate(async () => {
// use window.readfile to read contents of a file
const content = await window.readfile('/etc/hosts');
console.log(content);
});
await browser.close();
})();

page.fill(selector, value[, options])#

  • selector <string> A selector to query page for. See working with selectors for more details.
  • value <string> Value to fill for the <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element.
  • options <Object>
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise>

This method waits for an element matching selector, waits for actionability checks, focuses the element, fills it and triggers an input event after filling. If the element matching selector is not an <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element, this method throws an error. Note that you can pass an empty string to clear the input field.

To send fine-grained keyboard events, use page.type.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().fill()

page.focus(selector[, options])#

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to focus. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be focused. See working with selectors for more details.
  • options <Object>
  • returns: <Promise> Promise which resolves when the element matching selector is successfully focused. The promise will be rejected if there is no element matching selector.

This method fetches an element with selector and focuses it. If there's no element matching selector, the method waits until a matching element appears in the DOM.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().focus(selector).

page.frame(options)#

  • options <string|Object> Frame name or other frame lookup options.
    • name <string> frame name specified in the iframe's name attribute
    • url <string|RegExp|Function> A glob pattern, regex pattern or predicate receiving frame's url as a URL object.
  • returns: <null|Frame> frame matching the criteria. Returns null if no frame matches.
const frame = page.frame('frame-name');
const frame = page.frame({ url: /.*domain.*/ });

Returns frame matching the specified criteria. Either name or url must be specified.

page.frames()#

  • returns: <Array<Frame>> An array of all frames attached to the page.

page.getAttribute(selector, name[, options])#

Returns element attribute value.

page.goBack([options])#

  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
  • returns: <Promise<null|Response>> Promise which resolves to the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect. If can not go back, resolves to null.

Navigate to the previous page in history.

page.goForward([options])#

  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
  • returns: <Promise<null|Response>> Promise which resolves to the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect. If can not go forward, resolves to null.

Navigate to the next page in history.

page.goto(url[, options])#

  • url <string> URL to navigate page to. The url should include scheme, e.g. https://.
  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
  • returns: <Promise<null|Response>> Promise which resolves to the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect.

page.goto will throw an error if:

  • there's an SSL error (e.g. in case of self-signed certificates).
  • target URL is invalid.
  • the timeout is exceeded during navigation.
  • the remote server does not respond or is unreachable.
  • the main resource failed to load.

page.goto will not throw an error when any valid HTTP status code is returned by the remote server, including 404 "Not Found" and 500 "Internal Server Error". The status code for such responses can be retrieved by calling response.status().

NOTE page.goto either throws an error or returns a main resource response. The only exceptions are navigation to about:blank or navigation to the same URL with a different hash, which would succeed and return null.

NOTE Headless mode doesn't support navigation to a PDF document. See the upstream issue.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().goto(url[, options])

page.hover(selector[, options])#

  • selector <string> A selector to search for element to hover. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be hovered. See working with selectors for more details.
  • options <Object>
    • position <Object> A point to hover relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, hovers over some visible point of the element.
    • modifiers <Array<"Alt"|"Control"|"Meta"|"Shift">> Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the hover, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used.
    • force <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when the element matching selector is successfully hovered.

This method hovers over an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element match matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use page.mouse to hover over the center of the element, or the specified position.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method rejects with a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().hover(selector[, options]).

page.innerHTML(selector[, options])#

Resolves to the element.innerHTML.

page.innerText(selector[, options])#

Resolves to the element.innerText.

page.isClosed()#

Indicates that the page has been closed.

page.keyboard#

page.mainFrame()#

  • returns: <Frame> The page's main frame.

Page is guaranteed to have a main frame which persists during navigations.

page.mouse#

page.opener()#

  • returns: <Promise<null|Page>> Promise which resolves to the opener for popup pages and null for others. If the opener has been closed already the promise may resolve to null.

page.pdf([options])#

  • options <Object> Options object which might have the following properties:
    • path <string> The file path to save the PDF to. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory. If no path is provided, the PDF won't be saved to the disk.
    • scale <number> Scale of the webpage rendering. Defaults to 1. Scale amount must be between 0.1 and 2.
    • displayHeaderFooter <boolean> Display header and footer. Defaults to false.
    • headerTemplate <string> HTML template for the print header. Should be valid HTML markup with following classes used to inject printing values into them:
      • 'date' formatted print date
      • 'title' document title
      • 'url' document location
      • 'pageNumber' current page number
      • 'totalPages' total pages in the document
    • footerTemplate <string> HTML template for the print footer. Should use the same format as the headerTemplate.
    • printBackground <boolean> Print background graphics. Defaults to false.
    • landscape <boolean> Paper orientation. Defaults to false.
    • pageRanges <string> Paper ranges to print, e.g., '1-5, 8, 11-13'. Defaults to the empty string, which means print all pages.
    • format <string> Paper format. If set, takes priority over width or height options. Defaults to 'Letter'.
    • width <string|number> Paper width, accepts values labeled with units.
    • height <string|number> Paper height, accepts values labeled with units.
    • margin <Object> Paper margins, defaults to none.
      • top <string|number> Top margin, accepts values labeled with units. Defaults to 0.
      • right <string|number> Right margin, accepts values labeled with units. Defaults to 0.
      • bottom <string|number> Bottom margin, accepts values labeled with units. Defaults to 0.
      • left <string|number> Left margin, accepts values labeled with units. Defaults to 0.
    • preferCSSPageSize <boolean> Give any CSS @page size declared in the page priority over what is declared in width and height or format options. Defaults to false, which will scale the content to fit the paper size.
  • returns: <Promise<Buffer>> Promise which resolves with PDF buffer.

NOTE Generating a pdf is currently only supported in Chromium headless.

page.pdf() generates a pdf of the page with print css media. To generate a pdf with screen media, call page.emulateMedia({ media: 'screen' }) before calling page.pdf():

NOTE By default, page.pdf() generates a pdf with modified colors for printing. Use the -webkit-print-color-adjust property to force rendering of exact colors.

// Generates a PDF with 'screen' media type.
await page.emulateMedia({media: 'screen'});
await page.pdf({path: 'page.pdf'});

The width, height, and margin options accept values labeled with units. Unlabeled values are treated as pixels.

A few examples:

  • page.pdf({width: 100}) - prints with width set to 100 pixels
  • page.pdf({width: '100px'}) - prints with width set to 100 pixels
  • page.pdf({width: '10cm'}) - prints with width set to 10 centimeters.

All possible units are:

  • px - pixel
  • in - inch
  • cm - centimeter
  • mm - millimeter

The format options are:

  • Letter: 8.5in x 11in
  • Legal: 8.5in x 14in
  • Tabloid: 11in x 17in
  • Ledger: 17in x 11in
  • A0: 33.1in x 46.8in
  • A1: 23.4in x 33.1in
  • A2: 16.54in x 23.4in
  • A3: 11.7in x 16.54in
  • A4: 8.27in x 11.7in
  • A5: 5.83in x 8.27in
  • A6: 4.13in x 5.83in

NOTE headerTemplate and footerTemplate markup have the following limitations:

  1. Script tags inside templates are not evaluated.
  2. Page styles are not visible inside templates.

page.press(selector, key[, options])#

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to type into. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.
  • key <string> Name of the key to press or a character to generate, such as ArrowLeft or a.
  • options <Object>
    • delay <number> Time to wait between keydown and keyup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise>

Focuses the element, and then uses keyboard.down and keyboard.up.

key can specify the intended keyboardEvent.key value or a single character to generate the text for. A superset of the key values can be found here. Examples of the keys are:

F1 - F12, Digit0- Digit9, KeyA- KeyZ, Backquote, Minus, Equal, Backslash, Backspace, Tab, Delete, Escape, ArrowDown, End, Enter, Home, Insert, PageDown, PageUp, ArrowRight, ArrowUp, etc.

Following modification shortcuts are also suported: Shift, Control, Alt, Meta, ShiftLeft.

Holding down Shift will type the text that corresponds to the key in the upper case.

If key is a single character, it is case-sensitive, so the values a and A will generate different respective texts.

Shortcuts such as key: "Control+o" or key: "Control+Shift+T" are supported as well. When speficied with the modifier, modifier is pressed and being held while the subsequent key is being pressed.

const page = await browser.newPage();
await page.goto('https://keycode.info');
await page.press('body', 'A');
await page.screenshot({ path: 'A.png' });
await page.press('body', 'ArrowLeft');
await page.screenshot({ path: 'ArrowLeft.png' });
await page.press('body', 'Shift+O');
await page.screenshot({ path: 'O.png' });
await browser.close();

page.reload([options])#

  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
  • returns: <Promise<null|Response>> Promise which resolves to the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect.

page.route(url, handler)#

Routing provides the capability to modify network requests that are made by a page.

Once routing is enabled, every request matching the url pattern will stall unless it's continued, fulfilled or aborted.

An example of a naΓ―ve handler that aborts all image requests:

const page = await browser.newPage();
await page.route('**/*.{png,jpg,jpeg}', route => route.abort());
await page.goto('https://example.com');
await browser.close();

or the same snippet using a regex pattern instead:

const page = await browser.newPage();
await page.route(/(\.png$)|(\.jpg$)/, route => route.abort());
await page.goto('https://example.com');
await browser.close();

Page routes take precedence over browser context routes (set up with browserContext.route(url, handler)) when request matches both handlers.

NOTE Enabling routing disables http cache.

page.screenshot([options])#

  • options <Object> Options object which might have the following properties:
    • path <string> The file path to save the image to. The screenshot type will be inferred from file extension. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to current working directory. If no path is provided, the image won't be saved to the disk.
    • type <"png"|"jpeg"> Specify screenshot type, defaults to png.
    • quality <number> The quality of the image, between 0-100. Not applicable to png images.
    • fullPage <boolean> When true, takes a screenshot of the full scrollable page, instead of the currently visibvle viewport. Defaults to false.
    • clip <Object> An object which specifies clipping of the resulting image. Should have the following fields:
      • x <number> x-coordinate of top-left corner of clip area
      • y <number> y-coordinate of top-left corner of clip area
      • width <number> width of clipping area
      • height <number> height of clipping area
    • omitBackground <boolean> Hides default white background and allows capturing screenshots with transparency. Not applicable to jpeg images. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise<Buffer>> Promise which resolves to buffer with the captured screenshot.

NOTE Screenshots take at least 1/6 second on Chromium OS X and Chromium Windows. See https://crbug.com/741689 for discussion.

page.selectOption(selector, values[, options])#

  • selector <string> A selector to query page for. See working with selectors for more details.
  • values <null|string|ElementHandle|Array<string>|Object|Array<ElementHandle>|Array<Object>> Options to select. If the <select> has the multiple attribute, all matching options are selected, otherwise only the first option matching one of the passed options is selected. String values are equivalent to {value:'string'}. Option is considered matching if all specified properties match.
    • value <string> Matches by option.value.
    • label <string> Matches by option.label.
    • index <number> Matches by the index.
  • options <Object>
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise<Array<string>>> An array of option values that have been successfully selected.

Triggers a change and input event once all the provided options have been selected. If there's no <select> element matching selector, the method throws an error.

// single selection matching the value
page.selectOption('select#colors', 'blue');
// single selection matching both the value and the label
page.selectOption('select#colors', { label: 'Blue' });
// multiple selection
page.selectOption('select#colors', ['red', 'green', 'blue']);

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().selectOption()

page.setContent(html[, options])#

  • html <string> HTML markup to assign to the page.
  • options <Object> Parameters which might have the following properties:
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds for resources to load, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout), browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout), page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
    • waitUntil <"load"|"domcontentloaded"|"networkidle"> When to consider setting markup succeeded, defaults to load. Given an array of event strings, setting content is considered to be successful after all events have been fired. Events can be either:
      • 'load' - consider setting content to be finished when the load event is fired.
      • 'domcontentloaded' - consider setting content to be finished when the DOMContentLoaded event is fired.
      • 'networkidle' - consider setting content to be finished when there are no network connections for at least 500 ms.
  • returns: <Promise>

page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout(timeout)#

  • timeout <number> Maximum navigation time in milliseconds

This setting will change the default maximum navigation time for the following methods and related shortcuts:

NOTE page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout takes priority over page.setDefaultTimeout, browserContext.setDefaultTimeout and browserContext.setDefaultNavigationTimeout.

page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout)#

  • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds

This setting will change the default maximum time for all the methods accepting timeout option.

NOTE page.setDefaultNavigationTimeout takes priority over page.setDefaultTimeout.

page.setExtraHTTPHeaders(headers)#

  • headers <Object<string, string>> An object containing additional HTTP headers to be sent with every request. All header values must be strings.
  • returns: <Promise>

The extra HTTP headers will be sent with every request the page initiates.

NOTE page.setExtraHTTPHeaders does not guarantee the order of headers in the outgoing requests.

page.setInputFiles(selector, files[, options])#

This method expects selector to point to an input element.

Sets the value of the file input to these file paths or files. If some of the filePaths are relative paths, then they are resolved relative to the current working directory. For empty array, clears the selected files.

page.setViewportSize(viewportSize)#

  • viewportSize <Object>
    • width <number> page width in pixels. required
    • height <number> page height in pixels. required
  • returns: <Promise>

In the case of multiple pages in a single browser, each page can have its own viewport size. However, browser.newContext([options]) allows to set viewport size (and more) for all pages in the context at once.

page.setViewportSize will resize the page. A lot of websites don't expect phones to change size, so you should set the viewport size before navigating to the page.

const page = await browser.newPage();
await page.setViewportSize({
width: 640,
height: 480,
});
await page.goto('https://example.com');

page.textContent(selector[, options])#

Resolves to the element.textContent.

page.title()#

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().title().

page.type(selector, text[, options])#

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to type into. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be used. See working with selectors for more details.
  • text <string> A text to type into a focused element.
  • options <Object>
    • delay <number> Time to wait between key presses in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise>

Sends a keydown, keypress/input, and keyup event for each character in the text. page.type can be used to send fine-grained keyboard events. To fill values in form fields, use page.fill.

To press a special key, like Control or ArrowDown, use keyboard.press.

await page.type('#mytextarea', 'Hello'); // Types instantly
await page.type('#mytextarea', 'World', {delay: 100}); // Types slower, like a user

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().type(selector, text[, options]).

page.uncheck(selector, [options])#

  • selector <string> A selector to search for uncheckbox to check. If there are multiple elements satisfying the selector, the first will be checked. See working with selectors for more details.
  • options <Object>
    • force <boolean> Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.
    • noWaitAfter <boolean> Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise> Promise that resolves when the element matching selector is successfully unchecked.

This method unchecks an element matching selector by performing the following steps:

  1. Find an element match matching selector. If there is none, wait until a matching element is attached to the DOM.
  2. Ensure that matched element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method rejects. If the element is already unchecked, this method returns immediately.
  3. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  4. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  5. Use page.mouse to click in the center of the element.
  6. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  7. Ensure that the element is now unchecked. If not, this method rejects.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method rejects with a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().uncheck(selector[, options]).

page.unroute(url[, handler])#

Removes a route created with page.route(url, handler). When handler is not specified, removes all routes for the url.

page.url()#

This is a shortcut for page.mainFrame().url()

page.viewportSize()#

page.waitForEvent(event[, optionsOrPredicate])#

  • event <string> Event name, same one would pass into page.on(event).
  • optionsOrPredicate <Function|Object> Either a predicate that receives an event or an options object.
  • returns: <Promise<Object>> Promise which resolves to the event data value.

Waits for event to fire and passes its value into the predicate function. Resolves when the predicate returns truthy value. Will throw an error if the page is closed before the event is fired.

page.waitForFunction(pageFunction[, arg, options])#

  • pageFunction <function|string> Function to be evaluated in browser context
  • arg <EvaluationArgument> Optional argument to pass to pageFunction
  • options <Object> Optional waiting parameters
    • polling <number|"raf"> If polling is 'raf', then pageFunction is constantly executed in requestAnimationFrame callback. If polling is a number, then it is treated as an interval in milliseconds at which the function would be executed. Defaults to raf.
    • timeout <number> maximum time to wait for in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) method.
  • returns: <Promise<JSHandle>> Promise which resolves when the pageFunction returns a truthy value. It resolves to a JSHandle of the truthy value.

The waitForFunction can be used to observe viewport size change:

const { webkit } = require('playwright'); // Or 'chromium' or 'firefox'.
(async () => {
const browser = await webkit.launch();
const page = await browser.newPage();
const watchDog = page.waitForFunction('window.innerWidth < 100');
await page.setViewportSize({width: 50, height: 50});
await watchDog;
await browser.close();
})();

To pass an argument from Node.js to the predicate of page.waitForFunction function:

const selector = '.foo';
await page.waitForFunction(selector => !!document.querySelector(selector), selector);

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().waitForFunction(pageFunction[, arg, options]).

page.waitForLoadState([state[, options]])#

This resolves when the page reaches a required load state, load by default. The navigation must have been committed when this method is called. If current document has already reached the required state, resolves immediately.

await page.click('button'); // Click triggers navigation.
await page.waitForLoadState(); // The promise resolves after 'load' event.
const [popup] = await Promise.all([
page.waitForEvent('popup'),
page.click('button'), // Click triggers a popup.
])
await popup.waitForLoadState('domcontentloaded'); // The promise resolves after 'domcontentloaded' event.
console.log(await popup.title()); // Popup is ready to use.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().waitForLoadState([options]).

page.waitForNavigation([options])#

  • options <Object> Navigation parameters which might have the following properties:
  • returns: <Promise<null|Response>> Promise which resolves to the main resource response. In case of multiple redirects, the navigation will resolve with the response of the last redirect. In case of navigation to a different anchor or navigation due to History API usage, the navigation will resolve with null.

This resolves when the page navigates to a new URL or reloads. It is useful for when you run code which will indirectly cause the page to navigate. e.g. The click target has an onclick handler that triggers navigation from a setTimeout. Consider this example:

const [response] = await Promise.all([
page.waitForNavigation(), // The promise resolves after navigation has finished
page.click('a.delayed-navigation'), // Clicking the link will indirectly cause a navigation
]);

NOTE Usage of the History API to change the URL is considered a navigation.

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().waitForNavigation(options).

page.waitForRequest(urlOrPredicate[, options])#

const firstRequest = await page.waitForRequest('http://example.com/resource');
const finalRequest = await page.waitForRequest(request => request.url() === 'http://example.com' && request.method() === 'GET');
return firstRequest.url();
await page.waitForRequest(request => request.url().searchParams.get('foo') === 'bar' && request.url().searchParams.get('foo2') === 'bar2');

page.waitForResponse(urlOrPredicate[, options])#

const firstResponse = await page.waitForResponse('https://example.com/resource');
const finalResponse = await page.waitForResponse(response => response.url() === 'https://example.com' && response.status() === 200);
return finalResponse.ok();

page.waitForSelector(selector[, options])#

  • selector <string> A selector of an element to wait for. See working with selectors for more details.
  • options <Object>
    • state <"attached"|"detached"|"visible"|"hidden"> Defaults to 'visible'. Can be either:
      • 'attached' - wait for element to be present in DOM.
      • 'detached' - wait for element to not be present in DOM.
      • 'visible' - wait for element to have non-empty bounding box and no visibility:hidden. Note that element without any content or with display:none has an empty bounding box and is not considered visible.
      • 'hidden' - wait for element to be either detached from DOM, or have an empty bounding box or visibility:hidden. This is opposite to the 'visible' option.
    • timeout <number> Maximum time in milliseconds, defaults to 30 seconds, pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the browserContext.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) or page.setDefaultTimeout(timeout) methods.
  • returns: <Promise<null|ElementHandle>> Promise which resolves when element specified by selector satisfies state option. Resolves to null if waiting for hidden or detached.

Wait for the selector to satisfy state option (either appear/disappear from dom, or become visible/hidden). If at the moment of calling the method selector already satisfies the condition, the method will return immediately. If the selector doesn't satisfy the condition for the timeout milliseconds, the function will throw.

This method works across navigations:

const { chromium } = require('playwright'); // Or 'firefox' or 'webkit'.
(async () => {
const browser = await chromium.launch();
const page = await browser.newPage();
let currentURL;
page
.waitForSelector('img')
.then(() => console.log('First URL with image: ' + currentURL));
for (currentURL of ['https://example.com', 'https://google.com', 'https://bbc.com']) {
await page.goto(currentURL);
}
await browser.close();
})();

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().waitForSelector(selector[, options]).

page.waitForTimeout(timeout)#

Returns a promise that resolves after the timeout.

Note that page.waitForTimeout() should only be used for debugging. Tests using the timer in production are going to be flaky. Use signals such as network events, selectors becoming visible and others instead.

// wait for 1 second
await page.waitForTimeout(1000);

Shortcut for page.mainFrame().waitForTimeout(timeout).

page.workers()#

NOTE This does not contain ServiceWorkers