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ElementHandle

ElementHandle represents an in-page DOM element. ElementHandles can be created with the Page.QuerySelectorAsync() method.

Discouraged

The use of ElementHandle is discouraged, use Locator objects and web-first assertions instead.

var handle = await page.QuerySelectorAsync("a");
await handle.ClickAsync();

ElementHandle prevents DOM element from garbage collection unless the handle is disposed with JsHandle.DisposeAsync(). ElementHandles are auto-disposed when their origin frame gets navigated.

ElementHandle instances can be used as an argument in Page.EvalOnSelectorAsync() and Page.EvaluateAsync() methods.

The difference between the Locator and ElementHandle is that the ElementHandle points to a particular element, while Locator captures the logic of how to retrieve an element.

In the example below, handle points to a particular DOM element on page. If that element changes text or is used by React to render an entirely different component, handle is still pointing to that very DOM element. This can lead to unexpected behaviors.

var handle = await page.QuerySelectorAsync("text=Submit");
await handle.HoverAsync();
await handle.ClickAsync();

With the locator, every time the element is used, up-to-date DOM element is located in the page using the selector. So in the snippet below, underlying DOM element is going to be located twice.

var locator = page.GetByText("Submit");
await locator.HoverAsync();
await locator.ClickAsync();

Methods

BoundingBoxAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.BoundingBoxAsync

This method returns the bounding box of the element, or null if the element is not visible. The bounding box is calculated relative to the main frame viewport - which is usually the same as the browser window.

Scrolling affects the returned bounding box, similarly to Element.getBoundingClientRect. That means x and/or y may be negative.

Elements from child frames return the bounding box relative to the main frame, unlike the Element.getBoundingClientRect.

Assuming the page is static, it is safe to use bounding box coordinates to perform input. For example, the following snippet should click the center of the element.

Usage

var box = await elementHandle.BoundingBoxAsync();
await page.Mouse.ClickAsync(box.X + box.Width / 2, box.Y + box.Height / 2);

Returns

  • BoundingBox?#
    • x [float]

      the x coordinate of the element in pixels.

    • y [float]

      the y coordinate of the element in pixels.

    • width [float]

      the width of the element in pixels.

    • height [float]

      the height of the element in pixels.


ContentFrameAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.ContentFrameAsync

Returns the content frame for element handles referencing iframe nodes, or null otherwise

Usage

await ElementHandle.ContentFrameAsync();

Returns


OwnerFrameAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.OwnerFrameAsync

Returns the frame containing the given element.

Usage

await ElementHandle.OwnerFrameAsync();

Returns


WaitForElementStateAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.WaitForElementStateAsync

Returns when the element satisfies the state.

Depending on the state parameter, this method waits for one of the actionability checks to pass. This method throws when the element is detached while waiting, unless waiting for the "hidden" state.

  • "visible" Wait until the element is visible.
  • "hidden" Wait until the element is not visible or not attached. Note that waiting for hidden does not throw when the element detaches.
  • "stable" Wait until the element is both visible and stable.
  • "enabled" Wait until the element is enabled.
  • "disabled" Wait until the element is not enabled.
  • "editable" Wait until the element is editable.

If the element does not satisfy the condition for the timeout milliseconds, this method will throw.

Usage

await ElementHandle.WaitForElementStateAsync(state, options);

Arguments

  • state enum ElementState { Visible, Hidden, Stable, Enabled, Disabled, Editable }#

    A state to wait for, see below for more details.

  • options ElementHandleWaitForElementStateOptions? (optional)

Returns


Deprecated

CheckAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.CheckAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.CheckAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

This method checks the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Ensure that element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method throws. If the element is already checked, this method returns immediately.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use Page.Mouse to click in the center of the element.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  6. Ensure that the element is now checked. If not, this method throws.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Usage

await ElementHandle.CheckAsync(options);

Arguments

  • options ElementHandleCheckOptions? (optional)
    • Force bool? (optional)#

      Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.

    • NoWaitAfter bool? (optional)#

      Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.

    • Position Position? (optional) Added in: v1.11#

      • X [float]

      • Y [float]

      A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

    • Trial bool? (optional) Added in: v1.11#

      When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.

Returns


ClickAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.ClickAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.ClickAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

This method clicks the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  2. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  3. Use Page.Mouse to click in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  4. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Usage

await ElementHandle.ClickAsync(options);

Arguments

  • options ElementHandleClickOptions? (optional)
    • Button enum MouseButton { Left, Right, Middle }? (optional)#

      Defaults to left.

    • ClickCount int? (optional)#

      defaults to 1. See UIEvent.detail.

    • Delay [float]? (optional)#

      Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.

    • Force bool? (optional)#

      Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.

    • Modifiers IEnumerable?<enum KeyboardModifier { Alt, Control, ControlOrMeta, Meta, Shift }> (optional)#

      Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used. "ControlOrMeta" resolves to "Control" on Windows and Linux and to "Meta" on macOS.

    • NoWaitAfter bool? (optional)#

      Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.

    • Position Position? (optional)#

      • X [float]

      • Y [float]

      A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

    • Trial bool? (optional) Added in: v1.11#

      When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.

Returns


DblClickAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.DblClickAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.DblClickAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

This method double clicks the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  2. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  3. Use Page.Mouse to double click in the center of the element, or the specified position.
  4. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set. Note that if the first click of the dblclick() triggers a navigation event, this method will throw.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

note

elementHandle.dblclick() dispatches two click events and a single dblclick event.

Usage

await ElementHandle.DblClickAsync(options);

Arguments

  • options ElementHandleDblClickOptions? (optional)
    • Button enum MouseButton { Left, Right, Middle }? (optional)#

      Defaults to left.

    • Delay [float]? (optional)#

      Time to wait between mousedown and mouseup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.

    • Force bool? (optional)#

      Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.

    • Modifiers IEnumerable?<enum KeyboardModifier { Alt, Control, ControlOrMeta, Meta, Shift }> (optional)#

      Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used. "ControlOrMeta" resolves to "Control" on Windows and Linux and to "Meta" on macOS.

    • NoWaitAfter bool? (optional)#

      Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.

    • Position Position? (optional)#

      • X [float]

      • Y [float]

      A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

    • Trial bool? (optional) Added in: v1.11#

      When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.

Returns


DispatchEventAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.DispatchEventAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.DispatchEventAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

The snippet below dispatches the click event on the element. Regardless of the visibility state of the element, click is dispatched. This is equivalent to calling element.click().

Usage

await elementHandle.DispatchEventAsync("click");

Under the hood, it creates an instance of an event based on the given type, initializes it with eventInit properties and dispatches it on the element. Events are composed, cancelable and bubble by default.

Since eventInit is event-specific, please refer to the events documentation for the lists of initial properties:

You can also specify JSHandle as the property value if you want live objects to be passed into the event:

var dataTransfer = await page.EvaluateHandleAsync("() => new DataTransfer()");
await elementHandle.DispatchEventAsync("dragstart", new Dictionary<string, object>
{
{ "dataTransfer", dataTransfer }
});

Arguments

  • type string#

    DOM event type: "click", "dragstart", etc.

  • eventInit EvaluationArgument? (optional)#

    Optional event-specific initialization properties.

Returns


EvalOnSelectorAsync

Added in: v1.9 elementHandle.EvalOnSelectorAsync
Discouraged

This method does not wait for the element to pass actionability checks and therefore can lead to the flaky tests. Use Locator.EvaluateAsync(), other Locator helper methods or web-first assertions instead.

Returns the return value of expression.

The method finds an element matching the specified selector in the ElementHandles subtree and passes it as a first argument to expression. If no elements match the selector, the method throws an error.

If expression returns a Promise, then ElementHandle.EvalOnSelectorAsync() would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Usage

var tweetHandle = await page.QuerySelectorAsync(".tweet");
Assert.AreEqual("100", await tweetHandle.EvalOnSelectorAsync(".like", "node => node.innerText"));
Assert.AreEqual("10", await tweetHandle.EvalOnSelectorAsync(".retweets", "node => node.innerText"));

Arguments

  • selector string#

    A selector to query for.

  • expression string#

    JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If the expression evaluates to a function, the function is automatically invoked.

  • arg EvaluationArgument? (optional)#

    Optional argument to pass to expression.

Returns

  • [object]#

EvalOnSelectorAllAsync

Added in: v1.9 elementHandle.EvalOnSelectorAllAsync
Discouraged

In most cases, Locator.EvaluateAllAsync(), other Locator helper methods and web-first assertions do a better job.

Returns the return value of expression.

The method finds all elements matching the specified selector in the ElementHandle's subtree and passes an array of matched elements as a first argument to expression.

If expression returns a Promise, then ElementHandle.EvalOnSelectorAllAsync() would wait for the promise to resolve and return its value.

Usage

<div class="feed">
<div class="tweet">Hello!</div>
<div class="tweet">Hi!</div>
</div>
var feedHandle = await page.QuerySelectorAsync(".feed");
Assert.AreEqual(new [] { "Hello!", "Hi!" }, await feedHandle.EvalOnSelectorAllAsync<string[]>(".tweet", "nodes => nodes.map(n => n.innerText)"));

Arguments

  • selector string#

    A selector to query for.

  • expression string#

    JavaScript expression to be evaluated in the browser context. If the expression evaluates to a function, the function is automatically invoked.

  • arg EvaluationArgument? (optional)#

    Optional argument to pass to expression.

Returns

  • [object]#

FillAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.FillAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.FillAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

This method waits for actionability checks, focuses the element, fills it and triggers an input event after filling. Note that you can pass an empty string to clear the input field.

If the target element is not an <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element, this method throws an error. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, the control will be filled instead.

To send fine-grained keyboard events, use Locator.PressSequentiallyAsync().

Usage

await ElementHandle.FillAsync(value, options);

Arguments

  • value string#

    Value to set for the <input>, <textarea> or [contenteditable] element.

  • options ElementHandleFillOptions? (optional)

    • Force bool? (optional) Added in: v1.13#

      Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.

    • NoWaitAfter bool? (optional)#

      Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

Returns


FocusAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.FocusAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.FocusAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Calls focus on the element.

Usage

await ElementHandle.FocusAsync();

Returns


GetAttributeAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.GetAttributeAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.GetAttributeAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Returns element attribute value.

Usage

await ElementHandle.GetAttributeAsync(name);

Arguments

  • name string#

    Attribute name to get the value for.

Returns


HoverAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.HoverAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.HoverAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

This method hovers over the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  2. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  3. Use Page.Mouse to hover over the center of the element, or the specified position.
  4. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Usage

await ElementHandle.HoverAsync(options);

Arguments

  • options ElementHandleHoverOptions? (optional)
    • Force bool? (optional)#

      Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.

    • Modifiers IEnumerable?<enum KeyboardModifier { Alt, Control, ControlOrMeta, Meta, Shift }> (optional)#

      Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used. "ControlOrMeta" resolves to "Control" on Windows and Linux and to "Meta" on macOS.

    • NoWaitAfter bool? (optional) Added in: v1.28#

      Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.

    • Position Position? (optional)#

      • X [float]

      • Y [float]

      A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

    • Trial bool? (optional) Added in: v1.11#

      When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.

Returns


InnerHTMLAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.InnerHTMLAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.InnerHTMLAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Returns the element.innerHTML.

Usage

await ElementHandle.InnerHTMLAsync();

Returns


InnerTextAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.InnerTextAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.InnerTextAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Returns the element.innerText.

Usage

await ElementHandle.InnerTextAsync();

Returns


InputValueAsync

Added in: v1.13 elementHandle.InputValueAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.InputValueAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Returns input.value for the selected <input> or <textarea> or <select> element.

Throws for non-input elements. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, returns the value of the control.

Usage

await ElementHandle.InputValueAsync(options);

Arguments

Returns


IsCheckedAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.IsCheckedAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.IsCheckedAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Returns whether the element is checked. Throws if the element is not a checkbox or radio input.

Usage

await ElementHandle.IsCheckedAsync();

Returns


IsDisabledAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.IsDisabledAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.IsDisabledAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Returns whether the element is disabled, the opposite of enabled.

Usage

await ElementHandle.IsDisabledAsync();

Returns


IsEditableAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.IsEditableAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.IsEditableAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Returns whether the element is editable.

Usage

await ElementHandle.IsEditableAsync();

Returns


IsEnabledAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.IsEnabledAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.IsEnabledAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Returns whether the element is enabled.

Usage

await ElementHandle.IsEnabledAsync();

Returns


IsHiddenAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.IsHiddenAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.IsHiddenAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Returns whether the element is hidden, the opposite of visible.

Usage

await ElementHandle.IsHiddenAsync();

Returns


IsVisibleAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.IsVisibleAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.IsVisibleAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Returns whether the element is visible.

Usage

await ElementHandle.IsVisibleAsync();

Returns


PressAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.PressAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.PressAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Focuses the element, and then uses Keyboard.DownAsync() and Keyboard.UpAsync().

key can specify the intended keyboardEvent.key value or a single character to generate the text for. A superset of the key values can be found here. Examples of the keys are:

F1 - F12, Digit0- Digit9, KeyA- KeyZ, Backquote, Minus, Equal, Backslash, Backspace, Tab, Delete, Escape, ArrowDown, End, Enter, Home, Insert, PageDown, PageUp, ArrowRight, ArrowUp, etc.

Following modification shortcuts are also supported: Shift, Control, Alt, Meta, ShiftLeft, ControlOrMeta.

Holding down Shift will type the text that corresponds to the key in the upper case.

If key is a single character, it is case-sensitive, so the values a and A will generate different respective texts.

Shortcuts such as key: "Control+o", key: "Control++ or key: "Control+Shift+T" are supported as well. When specified with the modifier, modifier is pressed and being held while the subsequent key is being pressed.

Usage

await ElementHandle.PressAsync(key, options);

Arguments

  • key string#

    Name of the key to press or a character to generate, such as ArrowLeft or a.

  • options ElementHandlePressOptions? (optional)

    • Delay [float]? (optional)#

      Time to wait between keydown and keyup in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.

    • NoWaitAfter bool? (optional)#

      Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

Returns


QuerySelectorAsync

Added in: v1.9 elementHandle.QuerySelectorAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Page.Locator() instead. Read more about locators.

The method finds an element matching the specified selector in the ElementHandle's subtree. If no elements match the selector, returns null.

Usage

await ElementHandle.QuerySelectorAsync(selector);

Arguments

  • selector string#

    A selector to query for.

Returns


QuerySelectorAllAsync

Added in: v1.9 elementHandle.QuerySelectorAllAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Page.Locator() instead. Read more about locators.

The method finds all elements matching the specified selector in the ElementHandles subtree. If no elements match the selector, returns empty array.

Usage

await ElementHandle.QuerySelectorAllAsync(selector);

Arguments

  • selector string#

    A selector to query for.

Returns


ScreenshotAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.ScreenshotAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.ScreenshotAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

This method captures a screenshot of the page, clipped to the size and position of this particular element. If the element is covered by other elements, it will not be actually visible on the screenshot. If the element is a scrollable container, only the currently scrolled content will be visible on the screenshot.

This method waits for the actionability checks, then scrolls element into view before taking a screenshot. If the element is detached from DOM, the method throws an error.

Returns the buffer with the captured screenshot.

Usage

await ElementHandle.ScreenshotAsync(options);

Arguments

  • options ElementHandleScreenshotOptions? (optional)
    • Animations enum ScreenshotAnimations { Disabled, Allow }? (optional)#

      When set to "disabled", stops CSS animations, CSS transitions and Web Animations. Animations get different treatment depending on their duration:

      • finite animations are fast-forwarded to completion, so they'll fire transitionend event.
      • infinite animations are canceled to initial state, and then played over after the screenshot.

      Defaults to "allow" that leaves animations untouched.

    • Caret enum ScreenshotCaret { Hide, Initial }? (optional)#

      When set to "hide", screenshot will hide text caret. When set to "initial", text caret behavior will not be changed. Defaults to "hide".

    • Mask IEnumerable?<Locator> (optional)#

      Specify locators that should be masked when the screenshot is taken. Masked elements will be overlaid with a pink box #FF00FF (customized by maskColor) that completely covers its bounding box.

    • MaskColor string? (optional) Added in: v1.35#

      Specify the color of the overlay box for masked elements, in CSS color format. Default color is pink #FF00FF.

    • OmitBackground bool? (optional)#

      Hides default white background and allows capturing screenshots with transparency. Not applicable to jpeg images. Defaults to false.

    • Path string? (optional)#

      The file path to save the image to. The screenshot type will be inferred from file extension. If path is a relative path, then it is resolved relative to the current working directory. If no path is provided, the image won't be saved to the disk.

    • Quality int? (optional)#

      The quality of the image, between 0-100. Not applicable to png images.

    • Scale enum ScreenshotScale { Css, Device }? (optional)#

      When set to "css", screenshot will have a single pixel per each css pixel on the page. For high-dpi devices, this will keep screenshots small. Using "device" option will produce a single pixel per each device pixel, so screenshots of high-dpi devices will be twice as large or even larger.

      Defaults to "device".

    • Style string? (optional) Added in: v1.41#

      Text of the stylesheet to apply while making the screenshot. This is where you can hide dynamic elements, make elements invisible or change their properties to help you creating repeatable screenshots. This stylesheet pierces the Shadow DOM and applies to the inner frames.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

    • Type enum ScreenshotType { Png, Jpeg }? (optional)#

      Specify screenshot type, defaults to png.

Returns


ScrollIntoViewIfNeededAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.ScrollIntoViewIfNeededAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.ScrollIntoViewIfNeededAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

This method waits for actionability checks, then tries to scroll element into view, unless it is completely visible as defined by IntersectionObserver's ratio.

Throws when elementHandle does not point to an element connected to a Document or a ShadowRoot.

Usage

await ElementHandle.ScrollIntoViewIfNeededAsync(options);

Arguments

  • options ElementHandleScrollIntoViewIfNeededOptions? (optional)

Returns


SelectOptionAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.SelectOptionAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.SelectOptionAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

This method waits for actionability checks, waits until all specified options are present in the <select> element and selects these options.

If the target element is not a <select> element, this method throws an error. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, the control will be used instead.

Returns the array of option values that have been successfully selected.

Triggers a change and input event once all the provided options have been selected.

Usage

// Single selection matching the value or label
await handle.SelectOptionAsync(new[] { "blue" });
// single selection matching the label
await handle.SelectOptionAsync(new[] { new SelectOptionValue() { Label = "blue" } });
// multiple selection
await handle.SelectOptionAsync(new[] { "red", "green", "blue" });
// multiple selection for blue, red and second option
await handle.SelectOptionAsync(new[] {
new SelectOptionValue() { Label = "blue" },
new SelectOptionValue() { Index = 2 },
new SelectOptionValue() { Value = "red" }});

Arguments

  • values string?|ElementHandle?|IEnumerable?<string>|SelectOption|IEnumerable?<ElementHandle>|IEnumerable?<SelectOption>#
    • Value string? (optional)

      Matches by option.value. Optional.

    • Label string? (optional)

      Matches by option.label. Optional.

    • Index int? (optional)

      Matches by the index. Optional.

    Options to select. If the <select> has the multiple attribute, all matching options are selected, otherwise only the first option matching one of the passed options is selected. String values are matching both values and labels. Option is considered matching if all specified properties match.
  • options ElementHandleSelectOptionOptions? (optional)
    • Force bool? (optional) Added in: v1.13#

      Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.

    • NoWaitAfter bool? (optional)#

      Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

Returns


SelectTextAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.SelectTextAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.SelectTextAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

This method waits for actionability checks, then focuses the element and selects all its text content.

If the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, focuses and selects text in the control instead.

Usage

await ElementHandle.SelectTextAsync(options);

Arguments

  • options ElementHandleSelectTextOptions? (optional)

Returns


SetCheckedAsync

Added in: v1.15 elementHandle.SetCheckedAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.SetCheckedAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

This method checks or unchecks an element by performing the following steps:

  1. Ensure that element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method throws.
  2. If the element already has the right checked state, this method returns immediately.
  3. Wait for actionability checks on the matched element, unless force option is set. If the element is detached during the checks, the whole action is retried.
  4. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  5. Use Page.Mouse to click in the center of the element.
  6. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  7. Ensure that the element is now checked or unchecked. If not, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Usage

await ElementHandle.SetCheckedAsync(checked, options);

Arguments

  • checkedState bool#

    Whether to check or uncheck the checkbox.

  • options ElementHandleSetCheckedOptions? (optional)

    • Force bool? (optional)#

      Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.

    • NoWaitAfter bool? (optional)#

      Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.

    • Position Position? (optional)#

      • X [float]

      • Y [float]

      A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

    • Trial bool? (optional)#

      When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.

Returns


SetInputFilesAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.SetInputFilesAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.SetInputFilesAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Sets the value of the file input to these file paths or files. If some of the filePaths are relative paths, then they are resolved relative to the current working directory. For empty array, clears the selected files.

This method expects ElementHandle to point to an input element. However, if the element is inside the <label> element that has an associated control, targets the control instead.

Usage

await ElementHandle.SetInputFilesAsync(files, options);

Arguments

  • files string|IEnumerable<string>|FilePayload|IEnumerable<FilePayload>#
  • options ElementHandleSetInputFilesOptions? (optional)
    • NoWaitAfter bool? (optional)#

      Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

Returns


TapAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.TapAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.TapAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

This method taps the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  2. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  3. Use Page.Touchscreen to tap the center of the element, or the specified position.
  4. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

note

elementHandle.tap() requires that the hasTouch option of the browser context be set to true.

Usage

await ElementHandle.TapAsync(options);

Arguments

  • options ElementHandleTapOptions? (optional)
    • Force bool? (optional)#

      Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.

    • Modifiers IEnumerable?<enum KeyboardModifier { Alt, Control, ControlOrMeta, Meta, Shift }> (optional)#

      Modifier keys to press. Ensures that only these modifiers are pressed during the operation, and then restores current modifiers back. If not specified, currently pressed modifiers are used. "ControlOrMeta" resolves to "Control" on Windows and Linux and to "Meta" on macOS.

    • NoWaitAfter bool? (optional)#

      Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.

    • Position Position? (optional)#

      • X [float]

      • Y [float]

      A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

    • Trial bool? (optional) Added in: v1.11#

      When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.

Returns


TextContentAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.TextContentAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.TextContentAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

Returns the node.textContent.

Usage

await ElementHandle.TextContentAsync();

Returns


TypeAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.TypeAsync
Deprecated

In most cases, you should use Locator.FillAsync() instead. You only need to press keys one by one if there is special keyboard handling on the page - in this case use Locator.PressSequentiallyAsync().

Focuses the element, and then sends a keydown, keypress/input, and keyup event for each character in the text.

To press a special key, like Control or ArrowDown, use ElementHandle.PressAsync().

Usage

Arguments

  • text string#

    A text to type into a focused element.

  • options ElementHandleTypeOptions? (optional)

    • Delay [float]? (optional)#

      Time to wait between key presses in milliseconds. Defaults to 0.

    • NoWaitAfter bool? (optional)#

      Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

Returns


UncheckAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.UncheckAsync
Discouraged

Use locator-based Locator.UncheckAsync() instead. Read more about locators.

This method checks the element by performing the following steps:

  1. Ensure that element is a checkbox or a radio input. If not, this method throws. If the element is already unchecked, this method returns immediately.
  2. Wait for actionability checks on the element, unless force option is set.
  3. Scroll the element into view if needed.
  4. Use Page.Mouse to click in the center of the element.
  5. Wait for initiated navigations to either succeed or fail, unless noWaitAfter option is set.
  6. Ensure that the element is now unchecked. If not, this method throws.

If the element is detached from the DOM at any moment during the action, this method throws.

When all steps combined have not finished during the specified timeout, this method throws a TimeoutError. Passing zero timeout disables this.

Usage

await ElementHandle.UncheckAsync(options);

Arguments

  • options ElementHandleUncheckOptions? (optional)
    • Force bool? (optional)#

      Whether to bypass the actionability checks. Defaults to false.

    • NoWaitAfter bool? (optional)#

      Actions that initiate navigations are waiting for these navigations to happen and for pages to start loading. You can opt out of waiting via setting this flag. You would only need this option in the exceptional cases such as navigating to inaccessible pages. Defaults to false.

    • Position Position? (optional) Added in: v1.11#

      • X [float]

      • Y [float]

      A point to use relative to the top-left corner of element padding box. If not specified, uses some visible point of the element.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

    • Trial bool? (optional) Added in: v1.11#

      When set, this method only performs the actionability checks and skips the action. Defaults to false. Useful to wait until the element is ready for the action without performing it.

Returns


WaitForSelectorAsync

Added in: v1.8 elementHandle.WaitForSelectorAsync
Discouraged

Use web assertions that assert visibility or a locator-based Locator.WaitForAsync() instead.

Returns element specified by selector when it satisfies state option. Returns null if waiting for hidden or detached.

Wait for the selector relative to the element handle to satisfy state option (either appear/disappear from dom, or become visible/hidden). If at the moment of calling the method selector already satisfies the condition, the method will return immediately. If the selector doesn't satisfy the condition for the timeout milliseconds, the function will throw.

Usage

await page.SetContentAsync("<div><span></span></div>");
var div = await page.QuerySelectorAsync("div");
// Waiting for the "span" selector relative to the div.
var span = await page.WaitForSelectorAsync("span", WaitForSelectorState.Attached);
note

This method does not work across navigations, use Page.WaitForSelectorAsync() instead.

Arguments

  • selector string#

    A selector to query for.

  • options ElementHandleWaitForSelectorOptions? (optional)

    • State enum WaitForSelectorState { Attached, Detached, Visible, Hidden }? (optional)#

      Defaults to 'visible'. Can be either:

      • 'attached' - wait for element to be present in DOM.
      • 'detached' - wait for element to not be present in DOM.
      • 'visible' - wait for element to have non-empty bounding box and no visibility:hidden. Note that element without any content or with display:none has an empty bounding box and is not considered visible.
      • 'hidden' - wait for element to be either detached from DOM, or have an empty bounding box or visibility:hidden. This is opposite to the 'visible' option.
    • Strict bool? (optional) Added in: v1.15#

      When true, the call requires selector to resolve to a single element. If given selector resolves to more than one element, the call throws an exception.

    • Timeout [float]? (optional)#

      Maximum time in milliseconds. Defaults to 30000 (30 seconds). Pass 0 to disable timeout. The default value can be changed by using the BrowserContext.SetDefaultTimeout() or Page.SetDefaultTimeout() methods.

Returns